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Abraham Maslow. Hierarchy of Needs Instinctoid: hereditary component Activate and direct human behavior We are not driven by all needs at the same time.

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Presentation on theme: "Abraham Maslow. Hierarchy of Needs Instinctoid: hereditary component Activate and direct human behavior We are not driven by all needs at the same time."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abraham Maslow

2 Hierarchy of Needs

3 Instinctoid: hereditary component Activate and direct human behavior We are not driven by all needs at the same time

4 Characteristics of Needs Lower (deficiency) vs. higher (being) needs – Strength – Time they appear in life – External circumstances

5 Physiological Needs Bottom of hierarchy Basic survival needs: food, water, sex

6 Safety Needs Second from bottom of hierarchy Structure, order, stability, predictability More important to children than normal adults

7 Belongingness and Love Needs Middle of hierarchy Intimate and social relationships

8 Esteem Needs Fourth from bottom of hierarchy 2 forms of esteem needs: – From ourselves: feelings of self-worth – From others: status, recognition, social success

9 Self-Actualization Need Pinnacle of hierarchy Maximum realization of potentials, talents, abilities Fullest personality development Even if satisfy all other needs, person will feel restless and discontent if not self- actualizing

10 Conditions for Self-Actualization Free of constraints Not distracted by lower needs Secure self-image and relationships Realistic knowledge of strengths and weaknesses

11 Characteristics of Self-Actualizers Efficient perception of reality Acceptance of selves, others, nature Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness Focus on problems outside of themselves Social interest Creativeness

12 Characteristics of Self-Actualizers Peak experiences: religious, mystical experiences Profound interpersonal relationships Resistance to enculturation Extremely rare- seen in less than 1% of the population

13 Research in Malsow’s Theory Negative correlation between high self- actualizing scores and alcoholism, mental disorders, neuroticism Meeting esteem needs: greater feelings of self-worth, self-confidence, competence (similar to Badura’s self-efficacy)

14 Criticisms of Maslow’s Theory Weak research methodology – Small sample size – Lack of empirical methods Vague terms (peak experiences)

15 Contributions of Maslow Further development of humanism in psychology Applicable to variety of disciplines (teaching, religion, business) Very optimistic- may be more appealing to some than behavioral or psychoanalytic approaches


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