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Abraham Maslow.

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Presentation on theme: "Abraham Maslow."— Presentation transcript:

1 Abraham Maslow

2 Hierarchy of Needs

3 Hierarchy of Needs Instinctoid: hereditary component
Activate and direct human behavior We are not driven by all needs at the same time

4 Characteristics of Needs
Lower (deficiency) vs. higher (being) needs Strength Time they appear in life External circumstances

5 Physiological Needs Bottom of hierarchy
Basic survival needs: food, water, sex

6 Safety Needs Second from bottom of hierarchy
Structure, order, stability, predictability More important to children than normal adults

7 Belongingness and Love Needs
Middle of hierarchy Intimate and social relationships

8 Esteem Needs Fourth from bottom of hierarchy 2 forms of esteem needs:
From ourselves: feelings of self-worth From others: status, recognition, social success

9 Self-Actualization Need
Pinnacle of hierarchy Maximum realization of potentials, talents, abilities Fullest personality development Even if satisfy all other needs, person will feel restless and discontent if not self-actualizing

10 Conditions for Self-Actualization
Free of constraints Not distracted by lower needs Secure self-image and relationships Realistic knowledge of strengths and weaknesses

11 Characteristics of Self-Actualizers
Efficient perception of reality Acceptance of selves, others, nature Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness Focus on problems outside of themselves Social interest Creativeness

12 Characteristics of Self-Actualizers
Peak experiences: religious, mystical experiences Profound interpersonal relationships Resistance to enculturation Extremely rare- seen in less than 1% of the population

13 Research in Malsow’s Theory
Negative correlation between high self-actualizing scores and alcoholism, mental disorders, neuroticism Meeting esteem needs: greater feelings of self-worth, self-confidence, competence (similar to Badura’s self-efficacy)

14 Criticisms of Maslow’s Theory
Weak research methodology Small sample size Lack of empirical methods Vague terms (peak experiences)

15 Contributions of Maslow
Further development of humanism in psychology Applicable to variety of disciplines (teaching, religion, business) Very optimistic- may be more appealing to some than behavioral or psychoanalytic approaches

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