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A Wave of Reform The Progressives

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1 A Wave of Reform The Progressives 1890-1916
Chapter 34 A Wave of Reform The Progressives

2 The Progressives U.S. reform, largely peaceful
Progressive Era 1900–1920 Progressive Era produces significant reforms Progressives borrow others’ ideas Middle America Largely middle class Wanted to control big business Wanted to improve welfare of lower class Saw relationship between wealth and restless poor

3 The Progressives (cont.’d)
Government as the answer Government must take initiative in improving America Government action key to social and moral improvement Coat of many colors Progressivism not a coherent movement Crossed party lines Disagreed over many issues

4 The Progressives (cont.’d)
Race Most progressives did not accept racial equality Southern progressives white supremacists Some progressives see prejudice as worst evil Ray Stannard Baker W.E.B. DuBois, others, created NAACP Forbearers Herbert Croly: Hamiltonian means to Jeffersonian ends Adopted much of Populist platform, but not free silver Accepted “good government” idealism of Mugwumps Adopted idea of “scientific management”

5 Good Government Progressivism originates in cities Muckrakers
Hazen S. Pingree, Detroit reform mayor Thomas L. Johnson, Cleveland reform mayor Lincoln Steffens, “The Shame of the Cities” Muckrakers Investigative reporters expose evils Publish in mass-circulation magazines Ida M. Tarbell, “History of the Standard Oil Company” Muckrakers decline in quality

6 Good Government (cont.’d)
Efficiency and democracy City Manager system replaces mayor with executive Oregon system: initiative, referendum, recall Robert La Follette: progressive in Wisconsin Devoted resources of government to service of people Government needed expert help Developed relationship with University of Wisconsin Used machine methods to help reform Became U.S. senator

7 Good Government (cont.’d)
Progressive leaders Charles Evans Hughes of New York William E. Borah of Idaho George Norris of Nebraska Hiram Johnson prosecutes Abe Ruef in California Boss profited from rebuilding after earthquake Boss linked to Southern Pacific Railroad Johnson won governorship by promising reform

8 Making Better People Progressive moralism Crusade versus alcohol
Anthony Comstock’s crusade versus obscenity Regulating prostitution state and local issue Prostitution common, even where illegal Women progressives fight prostitution Most states make it illegal Crusade versus alcohol Saloons strengthen city bosses, hurt poor Carry Nation attacks saloons Francis Willard favors moderate tactics Many progressives do not support prohibition

9 Making Better People (cont.’d)
Feminism and progressivism Suffrage movement over 50 years old Very few victories New Leader: Carrie Chapman Catt Much opposition to women voting Changing strategies Catt abandons equality argument Catt agrees women more moral than men Says women voters would clean up politics Catt’s arguments gain progressive support

10 The Progressive President
Theodore Roosevelt (TR) comes to power Moves cautiously at first Wants to secure 1904 nomination Keeps best of McKinley’s cabinet Quickly builds up following TR busted trusts Files suit against Northern Securities Company Charges company with violating Sherman Antitrust Act Supreme Court rules against company Roosevelt becomes trustbuster

11 The Progressive President (cont.’d)
The Great Coal Strike Demands bosses negotiate with union John Mitchell Helps negotiate a compromise settlement Workers see Roosevelt as friend

12 The Reformer Riding High
TR’s victory, 1904 Republicans run Roosevelt Democrats run Alton B. Parker Roosevelt wins easily Socialists get 3% of votes in 1904 Socialists’ success concerns Roosevelt Hepburn Act, 1906 Act authorizes ICC to set maximum rates Provides teeth to stop rebates Meat Inspection Act, 1906 Sets sanitary standards on food processors Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906 Restricts additives, requires accurate labels

13 The Reformer Riding High (cont.’d)
Conservation National Forest Reserve dates from 1891 Gifford Pinchot and John Muir Roosevelt adds 125 million acres to forests Roosevelt adds 68 million acres of coal deposits Pleases Progressives, but not Western states

14 Discussion Questions What was the progressive movement? Where are its origins found? Who were the progressives? What were some of the noteworthy accomplishments of progressivism? Consider the progressive leaders Robert La Follette, Charles Evans Hughes, and Hiram Johnson. What do they have in common as progressive reformers? How did the Women’s Suffrage movement adapt to become a force in the progressive movement? What level of success did they achieve?

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