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Overtraining Dr. Noel McCaffrey Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU.

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Presentation on theme: "Overtraining Dr. Noel McCaffrey Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU."— Presentation transcript:

1 Overtraining Dr. Noel McCaffrey Lecturer, Centre for Sport Science and Health, DCU Medical Director, O’Neills Sports Medicine, UCD & DCU

2 overtraining the training / preparation challenge what is the overtraining syndrome do we understand the mechanism? recognition treatment and prevention

3 Resistance choice of exercise order of exercise volume (sets x reps) intensity (% rep max) rest (between sets) Endurance central adaptation peripheral (sport specific) adaptation cross training (injured) Speed speed generation repeat speed Skills technique repetition Team play training areas

4 the challenge provide continuous training stimulus with adequate variety, recovery, progression to facilitate optimum performance at the right time(s) avoid OTS minimise injury

5 the overtraining syndrome a condition characterised by  performance in training / competition (incl technical)  effort required to deliver same performance failure to show progression / improvement despite maintained or increased training

6 overtraining process  overtraining syndrome other words stalenessoverwork burnout chronic fatigue overfatigueoverstrain

7 Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Fitness Level Days inadequate recovery

8 overload training stimulus  adequate recovery  training increase (appropriate)   performance over-reaching training stimulus  inadequate recovery  repeated (+  ) training   performance  rest  full recovery in 2-3weeks overtraining training stimulus  inadequate recovery  repeated (+  ) training   performance  no recovery with rest

9 prevalence of OT signs and symptoms of OT seen in  60% distance runners over a career  50% pro soccer players in a 5 month competitive season 33% basketball players in a 6 week training camp

10 common symptoms of OTS general fatigue malaise  energy (malaise)  enthusiasm  motivation irritable / restless anxious appetite change weight loss depression  focus / concentration

11 diagnostic difficulties diagnosis of exclusion different symptoms with different individuals doing same same training acute vs chronic  performance  volume vs  intensity sympathetic vs parasympathetic models endurance vs ‘anaerobic’ overtraining

12 parasympathetic overtraining volume overload (resistance or endurance)  testosterone : cortisol ratio fatigue depression apathy  resting HR

13 sympathetic overtraining intensity overload insomnia irritability restlessness  HR  blood pressure

14 overuse injuries internal factors body mass biomechanics nutrition technique fatigue external factors training volume training intensity repetition footwear surface equipment

15 what causes it? imbalance / mismatch training   recovery exercise   exercise capacity stress   stress tolerance

16 initiating events  volume / intensity of training monotony of training illness (disease / infection) caloric restriction /  carbohydrate intake iron deficiency exercise-heat stress personal / emotional problems occupational stress

17 biological markers  blood constitiuents haemoglobin / hematocrit white cells iron blood lactate in submax / max exercise testosterone / cortisol catecholamines (resting / nocturnal) cardiorespiratory  resting / max heart rate  VO 2 max  heart rate / VO 2 / VE during exercise  basal metabolic rate  infection

18 immune system  upper respiratory tract infection in OR / OT athlethes cause or effect?

19 causes of persistent fatigue and underperformance in sport common caffeine withdrawal allergies ex-induced asthma  sleep  iron (+/- anaemia) performance anxiety infection mononucleosis upp. resp tract infection OTS mood disorder anxiety / depression less common dehydration diabtees eating disorders hepatitis hypothyroidism postconcussion substance abuse lr resp tract infection side effects of meds / supplements nutrition  carbo / protein rare endocrine disease  or  adrenal gland heart disease HIV malabsorption lung disease malignancy renal disease neuromuscular disease

20 fatigue What is it failure to generate or maintain desired exercise intensity peripheral mechanism (fuel depletion) central mechanisms (  brain serotonin) core symptom of many illnesses Fatigue in illness viral illness anaemia hypothyroidism hypoglycaemia chronic fatigue syndrome depression

21 OTS and Major Depression general fatigue / malaise  appetite irritable / restless  body weight  motivation  interest / pleasure  concentration feeling hopeless / worthless feeling sad persistent physical symptoms that fail to respond suicidal thoughts

22 Treatment and Prevention  recovery days periodise  variety ensure vol : intensity inverse relationship avoid high intensity over prolonged period in resistence sessions, avoid completing every set of every exercise in every session avoid overworking one area avoid excess eccentric work ? role for antidepressant medication

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