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Chapter 15 Plate Tectonics Section 1 Inside the EarthInside the Earth Section 2 Restless ContinentsRestless Continents Section 3 The Theory of Plate TectonicsThe.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Plate Tectonics Section 1 Inside the EarthInside the Earth Section 2 Restless ContinentsRestless Continents Section 3 The Theory of Plate TectonicsThe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Plate Tectonics Section 1 Inside the EarthInside the Earth Section 2 Restless ContinentsRestless Continents Section 3 The Theory of Plate TectonicsThe Theory of Plate Tectonics Section 4 Deforming the Earth’s CrustDeforming the Earth’s Crust Preview Concept Mapping

2 Chapter 15 Section 1 Inside the Earth Question of the Day If you journeyed to the center of the Earth, what do you think you would see along the way? Draw an illustration of the journey for your QOD.

3 Chapter 15 Objectives Identify the layers of the Earth by their chemical composition. Identify the layers of the Earth by their physical properties. Describe a tectonic plate. Explain how scientists know about the structure of Earth’s interior. Section 1 Inside the Earth

4 Chapter 15 The Composition of the Earth The Earth is divided into three layers. Crust Mantle Core Crust - the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle. Crust is 5 to 100 km thick, and is the thinnest layer of the Earth. Section 1 Inside the Earth

5 Chapter 15 The Composition of the Earth, continued Two types of crust—continental (land) and oceanic (ocean). Oceanic crust is thinner and denser than continental crust. Section 1 Inside the Earth

6 Chapter 15 The Composition of the Earth, continued Mantle - the layer of rock between the Earth’s crust and core. The mantle is much thicker than the crust, it makes up about 2/3 of Earth. We have never dug down that deep, so scientists must draw conclusions about what the mantle is made of and other physical properties from the Earth’s surface. Section 1 Inside the Earth

7 Chapter 15 Core - the central part of the Earth below the mantle. The core makes up about one-third of Earth’s mass. Scientists think that the Earth’s core is made mostly of iron. Section 1 Inside the Earth The Composition of the Earth, continued

8 Chapter 15 Section 1 Inside the Earth

9 Chapter 15 The Physical Structure of the Earth The Earth is divided into five physical layers: 1.The lithosphere 2.The asthenosphere 3.The mesosphere 4.The outer core 5.The inner core Each layer has its own set of physical properties. Section 1 Inside the Earth

10 Chapter 15 Physical Structure of the Earth, continued Lithosphere – the solid, outer layer of the Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle. The lithosphere is divided into pieces that are called tectonic plates. Section 1 Inside the Earth

11 Chapter 15 Asthenosphere - the soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move. The asthenosphere is made of solid rock that flows very slowly. Section 1 Inside the Earth Physical Structure of the Earth, continued

12 Chapter 15 Section 1 Inside the Earth

13 Chapter 15 Mesosphere - is the strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core. The prefix meso- means “middle.” Section 1 Inside the Earth Physical Structure of the Earth, continued

14 Chapter 15 Earth’s core is divided into two parts. The outer core is liquid and is right under the mantle. The inner core is solid iron and is the center of the Earth. Section 1 Inside the Earth Physical Structure of the Earth, continued

15 Chapter 15 Section 1 Inside the Earth

16 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plates Tectonic Plate – a block of lithosphere that consists of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle. These plates make the Earth look covered in puzzle pieces. Section 1 Inside the Earth

17 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plates, continued A Giant Jigsaw Puzzle Each tectonic plate fits together with the tectonic plates that surround it. The lithosphere is like a jigsaw puzzle. The tectonic plates are like the pieces of the puzzle. Section 1 Inside the Earth

18 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plates, continued A Tectonic Plate Close-Up The following Visual Concept presentation shows the Earth’s major tectonic plates and how they fit together. The presentation also illustrates what a tectonic plate might look like if you could lift it out of its place. Section 1 Inside the Earth

19 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plates, continued Tectonic plates “float” on the asthenosphere. The plates bump into one another when they move. Section 1 Inside the Earth

20 Chapter 15 Mapping the Earth’s Interior Since we can’t dig in the Earth how do we know what is there? Scientists measure speeds of seismic waves that travel through the Earth’s interior during earthquakes. By using seismographs, scientists have learned that the Earth is made of different layers. Section 1 Inside the Earth

21 Chapter 15 Section 2 Restless Continents Question of the Day What is meant by the following statement: “The United States is moving westward.” From what you know about geology and plate tectonics explain if you believe this statement to be true or false.

22 Chapter 15 Objectives Describe Wegener’s hypothesis of continental drift. Explain how sea-floor spreading provides a way for continents to move. Describe how new oceanic lithosphere forms at mid- ocean ridges. Explain how magnetic reversals provide evidence for sea-floor spreading. Section 2 Restless Continents

23 Chapter 15 Continental Drift Hypothesis Continental drift - the hypothesis that states that continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations. Section 2 Restless Continents

24 Chapter 15 The Breakup of Pangaea It was theorized that all of the present continents were once joined in a single, huge continent he called Pangaea. Pangaea is Greek for “all earth.” Pangaea existed about 245 million years ago. Section 2 Restless Continents

25 Chapter 15 Sea-Floor Spreading Evidence supporting continental drift hypothesis comes from sea-floor spreading. Sea-floor spreading - the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies. Section 2 Restless Continents

26 Chapter 15 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Mid-ocean ridges are underwater mountain chains that run through Earth’s ocean basins where sea- floor spreading takes place. Section 2 Restless Continents

27 Chapter 15 Section 2 Restless Continents

28 Chapter 15 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued Some of the most important evidence of sea-floor spreading comes from magnetic reversals recorded in the ocean floor. Molten rock at the mid-ocean ridge contains tiny grains of magnetic minerals that act like compasses. Section 2 Restless Continents

29 Chapter 15 Sea-Floor Spreading, continued When the Earth’s magnetic field reverses, the magnetic mineral grains align in the opposite direction. The new rock records the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field. Section 2 Restless Continents

30 Chapter 15 Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics Question of the Day If the sea floor is spreading an average of 4 cm a year, how many years did it take New York and the west coast of Africa to reach their current locations, 6,760 km apart? Calculate your answer in your science journal.

31 Chapter 15 Objectives Describe the three types of tectonic plate boundaries. Describe the three forces thought to move tectonic plates. Explain how scientists measure the rate at which tectonic plates move. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

32 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plate Boundaries As scientists’ understanding of mid-ocean ridges and magnetic reversals grew, a theory was formed to explain how tectonic plates move. Plate tectonics is the theory that explains how large pieces of the Earth’s outermost layer, called tectonic plates, move and change shape. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

33 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued A boundary is a place where tectonic plates touch. All tectonic plates share boundaries with other tectonic plates. The type of boundary depends on which direction the tectonic plates move. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

34 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Three types of boundaries: Convergent Boundaries Divergent Boundaries Transform Boundaries Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

35 Chapter 15 Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Convergent boundary – the boundary formed by the collision of two lithospheric plates. What happens at convergent boundaries depends on the kind of crust at the leading edge of each tectonic plate. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

36 Chapter 15 Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

37 Chapter 15 Divergent boundary – the boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other. New sea floor forms at divergent boundaries. Sea- Floor Spreading. Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

38 Chapter 15 Transform boundary – the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally. The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a transform boundary. Tectonic Plate Boundaries, continued Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

39 Chapter 15 Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

40 Chapter 15 Causes of Plate Movement What causes the motion of tectonic plates? Tectonic plates move because of changes in the density in the asthenosphere. The following Visual Concept presentation examines three possible driving forces of tectonic plate motion. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics

41 Chapter 15 Tracking Plate Movement Tectonic plate movements are so slow and gradual that you can’t see or feel them. Tectonic plate movement is measured in centimeters per year. Scientists use a system of satellites called the global positioning system (GPS) to measure the rate of tectonic plate movement. Section 3 The Theory of Plate Tectonics


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