Presentation on theme: "Anglo-Irish Relations 1922 - 1932 The ‘Restless Dominion’"— Presentation transcript:
Anglo-Irish Relations 1922 - 1932 The ‘Restless Dominion’
Early Irish Foreign Policy 1919 - 1921 1 st Dáil Eireann Issued the ‘Declaration of Independence’ to the “free nations of the world” seeking recognition Sent representatives to Berlin & Rome seeking recognition DeValera travelled extensively throughout the USA during 1919 & 1920, seeking recognition for the Irish Republic. Paris Peace Conference Seán T. O’Kelly was sent to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Although unsuccessful in achieving official recognition, O’Kelly’s work can be seen as a forerunner of official diplomatic relations from 1921 on. Both France & USA were unwilling to recognise the Irish Republic at this time, as their alliance with the UK was central to the Paris Peace Conference.
Key Personalities W.T. Cosgrave 1923 - 1932 Eamon deValera 1932 - 1948 Lloyd George British P.M. 1916 - 1922 Winston Churchill British P.M. 1940 - 1945 Neville Chamberlain British P.M. 1937 - 1940 Stanley Baldwin British P.M. 1924 – 1929
Key Events in Anglo-Irish Relations 1923 - 1949 Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921) Anglo-Irish Agreement (1925) Balfour Declaration (1926) Statute of Westminster (1931) Anglo-Irish Economic War (1932 – 1938) Abdication of King Edward VIII Bunreacht na hEireann (1937) Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement (1938) Neutrality & the ‘Emergency’ (1939 – 1945) Republic of Ireland Act (1948) Ireland Act (1949) Cumann na nGaedhael Government 1922 - 1932 Constitution Amendment Act & External Relations’ Act (1936)
The ‘Restless Dominion’ 1923 - 1932 Anglo-Irish Treaty (1921) Imperial Conferences (1923) & (1926) League of Nations (1923 – 1924) Anglo-Irish Agreement (1925)
Cumann na nGaedhael – Consolidation & Modest Expansion of Autonomy Anglo-Irish Policy 1923 - 1932 Young, small democracy with limited political or economic independence Dominion of British Commonwealth: membership of British Imperial Conferences 1923 & 1926 Joined League of Nations (1923) Registered Anglo-Irish Treaty with League of Nations’ Secretariat (1924) Boundary Commission Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement (1925) Balfour Declaration (1926) Statute of Westminster (1931) W.T. Cosgrave President of the Executive Council 1923 - 1932
Foreign Policy Achievements of Cumann na nGaedhael 1923 – 1932: The ‘Restless Dominion’ Constraints A.Irish Free state was a dominion of the British Commonwealth B.90% of Irish Free State trade was with Britain C.Large ethnic Irish population living & working in Britain D.Britain was its nearest neighbour Achievements 1.Joined the League of Nations & successfully registered Anglo-Irish Treaty with League Secretariat 2.Worked successfully within the Imperial Conferences of 1923 & 1926 to bring about the ‘Balfour Declaration’ which in turn led to the Statute of Westminster (1931) 3. Normalised relations with the UK while still earning the title of the ‘Restless Dominion’
W.T. Cosgrave with Irish Free State delegation to League of Nations
Impacts of Cosgrave’s Anglo-Irish Policy (1923 - 1932) Joining the League of Nations had successfully opened up a vital second avenue of Irish Foreign Policy Registering the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the League of Nations’ Secretariat had begun a process of evolving the relationship between the Irish Free State & UK The Imperial Conferences of 1923 & 1926 were instrumental in bringing about the Balfour Declaration, which subsequently led to the Statute of Westminster. The Irish Free State delegation were central to these efforts. The Boundary Commission & Anglo-Irish Agreement (1925) was the only real failure of Cosgrave’s tenure, making partition more defined and permanent.