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1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program Facilities Information Management Systems Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program Facilities Information Management Systems Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program Facilities Information Management Systems Workshop June 15, 2011 Pete Devlin Market Transformation and Intergovernmental Coordination Manager Fuel Cell Technologies Program

2 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Goal The Program’s goal is to ensure expansion of hydrogen and fuel cell system use for domestically produced products by lowering the life cycle costs of hydrogen and fuel cell power and identifying and reducing the barriers impeding full technology commercialization. 7 Fuel Cells installed in 2005:  Electrical power  Backup power  Exhaust recovered for cooling and heating Verizon Call Center - Garden City, NY

3 3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Stationary Fuel Cells Shipped Worldwide Year Megawatt Source: 2011 Pike Research Preliminary Analysis

4 4 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Fuel Cells vs. Combustion Fuel cells are not heat engines, so their efficiency can exceed the Carnot efficiency Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy, bypassing inefficiencies associated with thermal energy conversion. Conventional engines and turbines convert chemical energy into thermal energy prior to conversion to electrical energy. The efficiency of converting thermal energy to electrical energy is bounded by the Carnot efficiency. Source: EPA, Catalog of CHP Technologies, December 2008 Adapted from Larminie and Dicks, Fuel Cell Systems Explained, 2000

5 5 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Benefits of Fuel Cells Fuel cells use an efficient electrochemical process to generate electricity and heat, with low or zero emissions, offering benefits in a wide range of applications. Types of Fuel Cells Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) Pros: Low-temperature operation, quick start, and high power density Cons: Expensive catalysts Applications: Stationary generation, specialty vehicles, transportation, portable power Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) Pros: Low-temperature operation and high efficiency Cons: Low current and power density Applications: Distributed generation Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC) Pros: Low temperature operation and high efficiency Cons: Expensive impurity removal Applications: Military and space Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Pros: High efficiency, multiple fuel feedstocks, usable waste heat, and inexpensive catalysts Cons: Slow start-up and corrosion issues Applications: Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) and distributed generation Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Pros: High efficiency, multiple fuel feedstocks, and usable waste heat Cons: Slow start-up and corrosion issues Applications: Electric utility

6 6 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Overview of Combined Heat- Power Natural Gas Power Heat + Cooling Natural Gas or Biogas Fuel Cell Excess power generated by the fuel cell is fed to the grid Electricity

7 7 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov 7 Data Centers Are A Good Fit Multiple Uses for FC Energy Streams Power –Lighting –Air conditioning Thermal Energy –Adsorption A/C Supplements electric chillers –Thermal reduces electricity consumption –Reduces grid CO 2 generation –Space and water heating –Desiccant dehumidification

8 8 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Criteria Pollutant Emissions from Generating Heat and Power. Fuel cells emit about 75 – 90% less NOx and about 75 – 80% less particulate matter (PM) than other CHP technologies, on a life-cycle basis. In addition, similar to other CHP technologies, fuel cells can provide more than 50% reduction in CO 2 emissions, when compared with the national grid. Potential Reduction in Emissions

9 9 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov 9 Stationary Fuel Cells – Cost analysis Analysis efforts are underway, to provide information on potential costs and benefits of a variety of stationary fuel cell applications. Example: Cost of Electricity from Commercial-Scale Stationary Fuel Cell Example for MCFC 1.4 MW

10 10 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Micro CHP MicroCHP costs are becoming competitive with grid power and ROIs are estimated at under 5 yrs. Deployments will target areas where a business case can be made with pay back periods which meet industry needs. Next Steps –Award has been made to 10 small businesses. –Gather material performance data. –“Real world” evaluation operations and testing of equipment. Project Details 30 units 5 kW units Prove business case for MicroCHP applications Project Details 30 units 5 kW units Prove business case for MicroCHP applications

11 11 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Assessing the Potential for Micro CHP Electricity Cost ($/kWh) HAWAII $ CONNECTICUT $ NEW YORK $ MASSACHUSETTS $ NEW JERSEY $ ALASKA $ MAINE $ NEW HAMPSHIRE $ CALIFORNIA $ VERMONT $ Natural Gas Cost ($/kWh) WYOMING $ ALASKA $ UTAH $ COLORADO $ MONTANA $ NORTH DAKOTA $ IDAHO $ SOUTH DAKOTA $ NEW MEXICO $ CALIFORNIA $ Energy Price Ratio ALASKA 5.03 CALIFORNIA 3.47 CONNECTICUT 3.33 NEW YORK 3.23 NEW JERSEY 3.03 MASSACHUSETTS 2.88 WYOMING 2.80 COLORADO 2.75 UTAH 2.70 TEXAS 2.68 Price of electricity Price of natural gas Inexpensive Natural Gas Expensive Electricity Natural Gas Prices Electricity Prices

12 12 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov New Hourly Energy Supply & Demand Analysis Module Feed and Utility Prices Physical Property Data Cost Inputs Electricity Heat Hydrogen Demand Profiles Hourly Solar Wind Profiles Yearly Cash Flow Analysis Cost of Energy Output Cost of Purchased Electricity & Heat Credit for “Avoided” Electricity & Heat Purchase Greenhouse Gas Emissions Financial Inputs Energy analysis done for 8,760 h of one year H2A model inputs H2A database User inputs FCPower Model Hourly Energy Analysis Module

13 13 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov 13 LBNL PNNL * LLNL NTS NREL * LANL ANL * ORNL * SRNL TJNAF Fermi SLAC * FY2009 Feasibility Study SNL Spark Spread is an important factor

14 14 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Investment Tax Credit Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 Offers tax credit of 30% for qualified fuel cell property or $3,000/kW of the fuel cell nameplate capacity. Feature a 10% credit for combined- heat-and-power-system property. Equipment must be installed by Dec. 31, Grants for Energy Property in Lieu of Tax Credits American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 Allows facilities with insufficient tax liability to apply for a grant instead of claiming the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) or Production Tax Credit (PTC). Only entities that pay taxes are eligible. Capped at $1,500 per 0.5 kilowatt (kW) in capacity. Fuel cells must be greater than 0.5 kW and CHP 50MW or less. Construction must begin by expiration date, 12/31/2011. Loan Guarantee Program Energy Policy Act of 2005 Amount varies. Program focuses on projects with total project costs over $25 million. Full repayment is required over a period not to exceed the lesser of 30 years or 90% of the projected useful life of the physical asset to be financed. Residential Renewable Energy Credit American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of % tax credit. Fuel cell maximum: $500 per 0.5 kW Raises ITC dollar cap for residential fuel cells in joint occupancy dwellings to $3,334/kW. Fuel cells must have electricity- only generation efficiency greater than 30% and 0.5 kW minimum. Expires Dec. 31, Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 Fuel cell property placed in service between 9/8/2010 1/1/2012 qualifies for 100% first-year bonus depreciation. For 2012, bonus depreciation is still available, but at 50% of the eligible basis. The property must have a recovery period of 20 years or less under normal federal tax depreciation rules and been acquired and placed in service between 2008 – Grants for Energy Property in Lieu of Tax Credits American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 Allows facilities with insufficient tax liability to apply for a grant instead of claiming the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) or Production Tax Credit (PTC). Only entities that pay taxes are eligible. Capped at $1,500 per 0.5 kilowatt (kW) in capacity. Fuel cells must be greater than 0.5 kW and CHP 50MW or less. Construction must begin by expiration date, 12/31/2011. Federal Policies Promoting Fuel Cells Modified Accelerated Cost-Recovery System (MACRS) The Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 Fuel cell property placed in service between 9/8/2010 1/1/2012 qualifies for 100% first- year bonus depreciation. For 2012, bonus depreciation is still available, but at 50% of the eligible basis. The property must have a recovery period of 20 years or less under normal federal tax depreciation rules and been acquired and placed in service between 2008 – Hydrogen Fueling Facility Credit American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 Increases the hydrogen fueling credit from 30% or $30,000 to 30% or $200,000. Valid through December, 2010 Loan Guarantee Program Energy Policy Act of 2005 Amount varies. Program focuses on projects with total project costs over $25 million. Full repayment is required over a period not to exceed the lesser of 30 years or 90% of the projected useful life of the physical asset to be financed. Grants for Energy Property in Lieu of Tax Credits American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009 Allows facilities with insufficient tax liability to apply for a grant instead of claiming the Investment Tax Credit (ITC) or Production Tax Credit (PTC). Only entities that pay taxes are eligible. Capped at $1,500 per 0.5 kilowatt (kW) in capacity. Fuel cells must be greater than 0.5 kW and CHP 50MW or less. Construction must begin by expiration date, 12/31/2011. Residential Renewable Energy Credit American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of % tax credit. Fuel cell maximum: $500 per 0.5 kW Raises ITC dollar cap for residential fuel cells in joint occupancy dwellings to $3,334/kW. Fuel cells must have electricity-only generation efficiency greater than 30% and 0.5 kW minimum. Expires Dec. 31, Investment Tax Credit Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 Offers tax credit of 30% for qualified fuel cell property or $3,000/kW of the fuel cell nameplate capacity. Feature a 10% credit for combined-heat-and-power-system property. Equipment must be installed by Dec. 31, Hydrogen Fueling Facility Credit (EXPIRED) Increases the hydrogen fueling credit from 30% or $30,000 to 30% or $200,000. Manufacturing Credit (EXPIRED) Creates 30% credit for investment in property used for manufacturing fuel cells and other technologies

15 15 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Objectives, Goals, and Background of Joint Efforts –Bundle emergency backup power needs across multiple DOD and NASA sites to realize price reductions on a per site basis to demonstrate the advantages of fuel cells over incumbent technologies, which include: Longer continuous run-time and greater durability than batteries (fuel cells will last 15 years or more, depending on actual use) Require less maintenance than batteries or generators Monitored remotely Nearly 25% reduction in lifecycle costs for a 5-kW, 52-hour backup-power system** –Project funded by DOE and managed by Army CERL. Results to Date –Project awarded, installations will roll out over the next 12 months across 9 sites and installing over 40 units producing over 220kW of power, Next Steps –Collect operation data to facilitate future bundled deployments. CERL Emergency Backup Deployments 9 Sites Chosen: U.S Army Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD U.S. Army Fort Bragg, NC U.S. Army Fort Hood, TX U.S. Army National Guard, OH U.S. Army Picatinny Arsenal, NJ NASA Ames Research Center, CA USMC AGGC 29 Palms, CA (2 Buildings) U.S. Military Academy West Point, NY U.S. Air Force Cheyenne Mountain Air Station

16 16 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Example of ITC Benefit to a Fuel Cell Project *http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/fuel_cell_financing_fact_sheet.pdf

17 17 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Source: NREL report A Geographic Perspective on Current Biomass Resource Availability in the United States, 2005 Biogas Resource Example: Methane from Waste Water Treatment Biogas from waste water treatment plants is ideally located near urban centers to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. Focus Area Source: US DOE ,000 MT per year of methane available from waste water treatment plants in U.S. Majority of resource located near urban centers. If ~50% of the bio- methane was available, ~340,000 kg/day of renewable hydrogen could be produced from steam methane reforming Renewable hydrogen is enough to fuel ~340,000 fuel cell vehicles per day.

18 18 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov 12.4 million MT per year of methane available from landfills in U.S. Majority of resource located near urban centers. If 50% of the bio- methane was available, ~8 million kg/day of renewable hydrogen could be produced from steam methane reforming. Renewable hydrogen is enough to fuel ~8 million fuel cell vehicles per day. Source: NREL report A Geographic Perspective on Current Biomass Resource Availability in the United States, 2005 Biogas Resource Example: Methane from Landfills Biogas from landfills is located near large urban centers and could provide enough renewable resource to fuel ~8 million fuel cell vehicles per day. Focus Area Source: US DOE 2010

19 19 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Waste To Energy Example Los Alamitos Joint Forces Training Base (JFTB) Los Alamitos JFTB Urban Compost 25 ton/day Gasifier & Cleanup Fuel Cells 1,600 kW Resource potential for Los Alamitos 300 tons/day 19,200 kW Urban wood waste is an abundant feedstock around the US

20 20 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 4/2011eere.energy.gov Thank you For more information, please contact hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov


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