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Environmental Emergencies. Heat Related Injuries Cold Related Injuries Bites and Stings (Insects, Animals, etc) Poisonous Plants Weather Related.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Emergencies. Heat Related Injuries Cold Related Injuries Bites and Stings (Insects, Animals, etc) Poisonous Plants Weather Related."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Emergencies

2 Heat Related Injuries Cold Related Injuries Bites and Stings (Insects, Animals, etc) Poisonous Plants Weather Related

3 Who’s at risk? Work Outside Exercise Outdoors Elderly Young People with prior health issues

4 Least Severe First sign that the body is heat stressed Painful muscle spasms

5 Move the person to a cool place (shaded) Give them an electrolyte and carb fluid. Lightly stretch the muscle that is cramping DO NOT GIVE SALT TABLETS When the cramps stop – they can continue activity

6 More severe condition – often affects athletes, firefighters, construction workers and factory workers Cool, Moist, Pale Skin Headache Nausea Dizziness Weakness / Exhaustion

7 Early Recognition Be aware of the environment – Is it hot out today? Move to a cooler area Remove or loosen clothing and apply cool clothes (towels) to the axillaries Spray a misting water (cool) or fanning

8 IF CONSCIOUS – you can give small amounts of fluid (4 oz or less) at a time If they refuse water or don’t improve, CALL 911 Place patient in recovery position and monitor ABC’s

9 Least common – most serious Usually occurs due to ignoring signs and symptoms of Heat Exhaustion Extreme high body temp Red skin (dry or moist) Changes in LOC Rapid / Weak Pulse Shallow Breathing

10 Rapid cooling – immersion Cover with bags of ice Rapid Cooling for no more than 20 minutes – Protect the skin (ice)

11 Freezing of body parts exposed to cold temps Can result in loss of limbs Look for loss of feeling in affected area Swelling Skin appears waxy

12 Cold to the touch Discolored Blisters Black Skin with signs of deep tissue damage

13 More serious cases (blisters, tissue damage, loss of feeling that can’t be restored, call 911 Remove wet clothing NEVER RUB AREA – TISSUE DAMAGE

14 Gentle soak in warm water (105 or less) If fingers or toes are involved, place cotton or gauze between them to keep them from rubbing together Watch for shock conditions

15 Entire body cools because it can’t keep warm Will lead to death if not corrected TEMPERATURE DOES NOT HAVE TO BE BELOW FREEZING Elderly and children are more susceptible.

16 Intoxication Circulatory Medical Conditions Prolonged exposure

17 Shivering Numbness – Whole body Glassy stare (shock) Indifference LOC Shivering that stops without re- warming is DANGER SIGN

18 Move to warm place Remove wet clothing Put on dry clothing Use your body heat to help re- warm if nothing else available Wrap in blankets, plastic sheet Cover the top of the head

19 Be careful when using heat packs, warm water etc. on skin – don’t burn the skin – Use a barrier If conscious – give warm liquids, DO NOT GIVE ALCOHOL OR CAFFEINE

20 Unconscious – Recovery position and monitor the ABC’s

21 1.Stay indoors (or in climate controlled area during hottest and coldest parts of the day 2.Alter activity level depending on temp 3.Dress appropriately 4.Drink large amounts of fluid


23 Most bites and stings aren’t serious Flies Bees Ticks Fleas Etc.

24 What to look for: Presence of a stinger Pain Swelling Signals of an allergic reaction

25 What to do: Remove the stinger if possible – wear gloves Wash the site with soap and water Cover the site and keep clean Apply cold pack to area Call 911 for breathing problems

26 Rocky Mountain spotted fever Babesia Infection Ehrlichiosis Lyme Disease

27 Rocky Mountain spotted fever Bacterial infection – mostly in spring and summer and mostly in children

28 Rocky Mountain spotted fever Fever Nausea Muscle aches or pain Loss of appetite Severe headaches Rash (Later)

29 Most prevalent on east coast Spread by Deer Tick and Black-Legged Tick Usually must remain attached for 36 hours to transmit the disease

30 What to look for: Small Rash at the site of the bite Center lighter with redder outer edge Fever Headache Joint / Muscle Pain

31 Seek medical help if the rash begins to spread away from the site


33 West Nile Virus Passed by mosquito bites Eliminate standing bodies of water Keep stagnant water from accumulating around the house Signs and Symptoms usually develop within 3-14 days.

34 High Fever Headache Neck Stiffness Confusion Coma Convulsions Vision Loss Numbness / Paralysis


36 Few spiders in U.S. cause major problems Black Widow & Brown Recluse can be fatal

37 Black Widow Black with a reddish hourglass shape on the underside of it’s body Prefers dark, out-of-the-way places Usually bitten when reaching into these places

38 Brown Recluse Violin shape on the back portion of the front segment

39 Scorpion Dry regions – Western / SW U.S. Live under rocks and in the bark of trees Hard to distinguish poisonous from non poisonous so suspect them ALL

40 Spider Bite – What to look for Usually don’t know that you have been bitten unless you see it happen Black Widow Bites: Rigid muscles in shoulders, chest, back and abs Anxiety / Dizziness / Headache

41 Black Widow (con’t) Excessive sweating Weakness Drooping Eyelids Swelling at the site of the bite and expanding

42 Brown Recluse Little pain when bitten Blood-filled blister forms at the site and looks like a bulls-eye Gets bigger and eventually ruptures, leading to tissue damage and black scabs

43 Call 911 if… You witness the bite and know it’s a brown recluse or black widow While you wait… Wash the wound with water DO NOT TRY TO SUCK THE POISON OUT Bandage the wound to prevent infection

44 7000 snake bites each year – around 5 or so are fatal Rattlesnakes account for most bites and the most deaths in the U.S. Most deaths are due to allergic reaction




48 Call 911 immediately, especially if you don’t know what type of snake bit the victim Wash the wound Apply an elastic bandage to slow the venom spread DO NOT SUCK THE POISON


50 Dog bites are common and can be dangerous – infection and bleeding Don’t get bitten by lions, tigers, bears…that would generally suck as well. What do you do?

51 Control bleeding FIRST Do not clean serious wounds – get medical help If minor bleeding, wash with soap and warm water Apply antibiotic ointment Watch for infection

52 Stingray Jellyfish Portuguese Man O’ War

53 Jellyfish stings are the most common Very painful and dangerous if a person has an allergic reaction to the venom

54 What to do… Get someone to help remove the person from the water – Lifeguard DO NOT TOUCH THE AFFECTED AREA – YOU MIGHT GET STUNG AS WELL Irrigate with large amounts of vinegar

55 What to do… If the sting is from a Portuguese man-of-war, use ocean water to irrigate rather than vinegar DON’T RUB THE WOUND Once the sting has stopped, have the person take a hot shower for at least 20 minutes

56 Causes an allergic reaction Remove the contaminated clothing Wash the area with soap and water Wash the affected clothing Put a baking-soda paste on the area several times per day Go to doctor if rash lasts more than a few days

57 Causes more death in the U.S. than any other weather hazard Kills nearly 100 people each year and injures nearly 300 more. Travels at speeds up to 300 miles / second 50 million volts of electricity

58 Best treatment is prevention Pick campsites that meet safety precautions Pay attention to forecasts Plan turn-around time – how long would it take to get to safety if caught in a storm

59 Find quick shelter Cars are best, but get in one that has a top and windows rolled up Use the 30/30 rule. Lightening visible, count 1,2,3…if you hear thunder before 30, the lightening is within 6 miles and a SERIOUS THREAT

60 If you are caught in the storm, take a safe position

61 If you are caught in the storm… Take off metal and toss away from your person Do not lie down, try to make as little contact with the ground as possible Space yourself away from others

62 Injuries… Unconsciousness Dazed, Confused behavior Trouble breathing No breathing Burn marks on skin, or other open wounds Muscle, Bone, Joint injuries such as fractures / dislocations


64 Questions? I have ADD…I don’t remember what was on the second slide

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