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1 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi.  To Study Morphology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment & prevention of : Clostridium tetani Clostridium bolutinum.

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Presentation on theme: "1 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi.  To Study Morphology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment & prevention of : Clostridium tetani Clostridium bolutinum."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

2  To Study Morphology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatment & prevention of : Clostridium tetani Clostridium bolutinum 2 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

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4  Distributed in soil, & grows in intestine of humans and horses.  Size : 5µm x 0.5 µm  Shape : slender rods with parallel sides & rounded ends with spherical terminal spores (drumstick)  Non-Specific, gram positive, Motile, forms spore. 4 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

5  Obligate anaerobe, at 37°C  Grows on ordinary media, and improved when blood or serum is included in agar media.  On Blood agar it has tendency to swarm over the surface. 5 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

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7  It grows in the wounds in anaerobic condition as a consequence, toxin is liberated there. The toxin travels along the nerves to reach the nervous system and produces tetanus by two ways : By Blocking acetylcholine at myoneural junc. Countering inhibitory influences on muscle reflex.  Thus lowers the lower motor activity leads to muscle rigidity & spasm  Once toxin reaches the spinal cord the toxin can no longer be neutralised by antitoxin. 7 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

8  Removal of inhibitory influences on ANS causes increased autonomic activity such as tachycardia sweating & hypotension 8 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

9  Incubation period :5-15 days/ longer  Stage of rigidity: Stiff jaws. Further spreads to neck within 24 hrs.  Stage of spasm :Painfull contractions devlop within muscles due to rigidity of spasm. Period is called as ‘period of onset’.  The spasms causes the grimacing of the face and arching of neck and back, & even causes respiratory failure.  In mild cases only spasm over localised area become rigid. 9 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

10  Immunoglobin 20,000 IU.  Sedation: Diazapam used to control mild spasm  Fluid and electrolyte balance is imp.  Neonatal-Unique problem in developing countries. 10 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

11  Immunisation with tetanus toxoid provides protection for atleast ten years/ longer.  Universal childhood immunisation with 3 primary dose followed by boosters at school entry and leaving in developing counteries.  Wounds should be thoroughly cleaned and foreign bodies or dead bodies must removed.  Penicillin for contaminated wounds may reduce likelihood of tetanus. 11 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

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13  Occurs in soil, veges, hay & silage  Gram positive of 5µm x 1µm in size.  Non-capsulated & motile by peritrichate flagelle.  Produces buldging spores.  Obligate anaerobe at 35°C 13 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

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15  Produces powerful exotoxin responsible for its pathogenicity. This toxin is pure crystalline protien & probably is the most toxic substance known to humans.  Normally occurs in inactive form and is probably converted to active toxins by action of proteolytic enzyme.  Its toxin acts as neurotoxin, blocking the action of acetylcholine at synapses & neuromuscular junctions & leads to paralysis.  Death occurs due to respiratory paralysis. 15 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

16 In food poisoning botulism, after incubation period there is onset of vomiting, tiredness, thirst & bulbar & ocular muscle paralysis. Followed by flacid paralysis of limb & trunk muscles & Death due to respiratory failure. In Infants: Severe with occurrence of difficulty in feeding. 16 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

17  Its activity can be neutralised by specific antitoxin.  Standard Canning to prevent occurrence of botulism; most of the out breaks are due to inadequate home preservation of food.  In home preservation it should be pressure cooked or should be boiled for 20 minutes. 17 By- Himanshu R Pardeshi

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