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1. What is the sequence of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation?

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Presentation on theme: "1. What is the sequence of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation?"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1. What is the sequence of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation?

3 Prekallikrein + HMW kininogen + factor XII + exposed collagen → activates Factor XI → activates Factor IX +Factor VIII → activates Factor X + Factor V → converts prothrombin (Factor II) to thrombin → thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

4 2. What is the sequence of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation?

5 Factor VII + tissue factor → activates Factor X +Factor V → converts prothrombin to thrombin → thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin

6 3. Which factors are known as the labile factors (i.e. activity lost in stored blood)?

7 Factors V and VIII

8 4. Which factor has the shortest half-life?

9 Factor VII

10 5. What are the Vitamin K dependent factors?

11 Factors II, VII, IX, and X and proteins C and S

12 6. Which factor is the convergence point for both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of coagulation?

13 Factor X

14 7. PT measures the function of which factors?

15 Factors II, V, VII, and X and fibrinogen

16 8. PTT measures the function of which factors?

17 Factors II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, and XII and fibrinogen

18 9. What 2 electrolytes are required for the formation of a platelet plug?

19 Calcium and Magnesium

20 10. What is the sequence of physiologic reactions that mediate hemostasis following vascular injury?

21 1. Vasoconstriction 2. Platelet activation/adherence/aggregation 3. Thrombin generation

22 11. Uremia leads to a downregulation of?

23 GpIb, GpIIb/IIIA, and vWF

24 12. What is the treatment of choice for uremic coagulopathy?

25 Dialysis

26 13. Which drug can be given to help correct platelet dysfunction from uremia, bypass, or ASA?

27 Desmopressin (DDAVP)

28 14. DDAVP and conjugated estrogens stimulate the release of?

29 Factor VII and vWF

30 15. What platelet count is needed before surgery?

31 >50,000/mL

32 16. What platelet count is associated w/ spontaneous bleeding?

33 < 20,000/mL

34 17. What platelet count suggests the prophylactic transfusion of platelets?

35 <10,000

36 18. What is Virchow’s triad?

37 Stasis, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability

38 19. What is the most common cause of acquired hypercoagulability?

39 Smoking

40 20. What is the most common inherited hypercoagulable state?

41 Factor V Leiden

42 21. What is the treatment for hyperhomocysteinemia?

43 Vitamin B-12 and folate

44 22. Name the prothrombin gene defect causing spontaneous venous thrombosis?

45 Prothrombin gene defect G20210A

46 23. What is the normal life of a platelet?

47 7-10 days

48 24. What electrolyte is most likely to fall after the infusion of stored blood?

49 Ionized calcium (citrate in stored blood binds serum calcium)

50 25. How long can PRBCs be stored?

51 ~ 42 days or 6 weeks

52 26. What is the most common blood product to contain bacterial contamination?

53 Platelets (stored at room temperature)

54 27. What type of bacteria is usually found in contaminated platelets?

55 Gram-positives

56 28. What is the most common bacteria found w/ blood product contamination?

57 Gram negative rods (E. coli)

58 29. Who would you transfuse with leukocyte reduced packed red blood cells?

59 Patients with multiple reactions despite premedication with antipyretics, patients needing long term platelet support, and transplant candidates in order to prevent formation of HLA antibodies

60 30. What are the indications for blood transfusion?

61 Hgb < 10 w/ h/o CAD/COPD, Healthy symptomatic pt. w/ Hgb < 7, acute blood loss

62 31. What is the approximate formula to convert Hct to Hgb?

63 Hct / 3 = Hgb

64 32. 1 U PRBC should increase the Hgb and Hct by this much?

65 Should increase Hgb by 1 g/dL and Hct by ~3-4%

66 33. What happens during a type and screen?

67 Patient's blood is screened for antibodies and blood type is determined

68 34. What happens during a type and cross?

69 Pts. blood is sent to the blood bank and cross- matched for specific donor units for possible transfusion

70 35. What fluid cannot be infused with PRBC and why?

71 Lactated Ringer's; Calcium in LR may result in coagulation w/in IV line

72 36. Most common cause of transfusion hemolysis?

73 Clerical error leading to ABO incompatibility

74 37. What is the treatment for transfusion hemolysis?

75 Stop transfusion; fluids; Lasix; alkalinize urine w/ bicarbonate; pressors as needed

76 38. How long does it take for Vitamin K to take effect?

77 6 hours

78 39. How long does it take for FFP to work?

79 Immediately

80 40. How long do the effects of FFP last?

81 6 hours

82 41. What does cryoprecipitate contain?

83 vWF, Factor VIII, and fibrinogen

84 42. What does FFP contain?

85 All factors including labile Factors V and VIII, AT- III, protein C and S

86 43. What is the best method for detecting pts. at risk for bleeding?

87 A complete history and physical exam

88 44. What is the most common congenital bleeding disorder?

89 Von Willebrand's disease

90 45. What factor is deficient in hemophilia A?

91 Factor VIII

92 46. What is the preoperative treatment for hemophilia A?

93 Factor VIII infusion to 100% normal preoperative levels

94 47. What factor is deficient in Hemophilia B?

95 Factor IX

96 48. What is the treatment for hemarthrosis in a pt. w/ hemophilia A?

97 Initial therapy includes Factor VIII, joint rest, cold packs (3-5 days) and a compression dressing (3-5 days); Followed by active range of motion exercised 24 hrs. after Factor VIII therapy.

98 49. What receptor deficiency is found in Glanzmann's thrombocytopenia?

99 GpIIb/IIIa receptor deficiency; platelets can not bind to each other

100 50. What receptor deficiency is found in Bernard Soulier disease?

101 GpIb receptor deficiency; platelets can not bind to collagen

102 51. What are the desired platelet counts and Hct for a pt. with polycythemia vera before an elective operation?

103 Plt < 400,000/mL and Hct < 48%

104 52. What protein does Heparin bind to for its anti-coagulation effects?

105 Anti-thrombin III; Heparin-antithrombin III complex then binds factor IX, X, XI

106 53. What is the half-life of heparin?

107 60-90 minutes

108 54. What is the dose of protamine to reverse 100 U or 1 mg of heparin?

109 1-1.5 mg

110 55. What signs will you see in a protamine reaction?

111 Bradycardia, hypotension, and decreased heart function

112 56. How does warfarin induced skin necrosis occur?

113 Protein C and S have a shorter half life than Factors II, VII, IX, and X. Coumadin leads to a decrease in Protein C and S before the other factors leading to a hypercoagulable state

114 57. Pts. with this deficiency are at increased risk for Warfarin induced skin necrosis?

115 Protein C deficiency

116 58. What is the desired activated clotting time for routine anticoagulation?

117 seconds

118 59. What is the desired activated clotting time for cardiopulmonary bypass?

119 400 seconds

120 60. What INR is a contraindication to intramuscular injection?

121 INR > 1.5

122 61. What are the absolute contraindications to the use of thrombolytics?

123 Recent CVA (<2 months), intracranial pathology, and active internal bleeding

124 62. What are the indications for an IVC filter?

125 Pts. who have undergone a pulmonary embolectomy, pts. with documented PE while anticoagulated, pts. with free floating femoral, ileofemoral, IVC DVT, pts. with contraindication to anticoagulation, and pts. at high risk for DVT (head injured/orthopedic injured on prolonged bed rest)"

126 63. What is Argatroban?

127 A synthetic direct thrombin inhibitor derived from L-arginine

128 64. What is Hirudin?

129 An irreversible direct thrombin inhibitor derived from leeches

130 65. What is Ancrod?

131 Malayan pit viper venom that stimulates tPA release


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