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The Right to Energy & The Right Energy in the Changing Climate Dr. CM Nautiyal* 09415107078 * Scientist, BSIP, Lucknow.

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Presentation on theme: "The Right to Energy & The Right Energy in the Changing Climate Dr. CM Nautiyal* 09415107078 * Scientist, BSIP, Lucknow."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Right to Energy & The Right Energy in the Changing Climate Dr. CM Nautiyal* * Scientist, BSIP, Lucknow

2 The Climate Scenario Grim, in short! Grim, in short! The moods of weather swing unpredictably. The moods of weather swing unpredictably. The global temperature continues to rise. The global temperature continues to rise. Natural calamities are heard of more often, be it land slides in Uttarakhand, hurricanes in the USA or earthquakes in Haiti or elsewhere. Natural calamities are heard of more often, be it land slides in Uttarakhand, hurricanes in the USA or earthquakes in Haiti or elsewhere. Admittedly, they all are not always necessarily related. Admittedly, they all are not always necessarily related.

3 How We Know Climate Is Changing Increase in temperature Increase in temperature Increase in evaporation, more energy to atmosphere, leading to atmospheric disturbances like hurricane Increase in evaporation, more energy to atmosphere, leading to atmospheric disturbances like hurricane More extreme events, more and unexpected storms, floods More extreme events, more and unexpected storms, floods Change in rain- patterns Change in rain- patterns Tropical diseases Tropical diseases Rise in sea- level, flooding of coastal area, vanishing islands Rise in sea- level, flooding of coastal area, vanishing islands More frequent and more pronounced El Nino and La Nina (sub- ocean surface warm and cold water streams near Peru coast in S. America causing disturbances) More frequent and more pronounced El Nino and La Nina (sub- ocean surface warm and cold water streams near Peru coast in S. America causing disturbances)

4 Some facts We are already at 385 ppm of CO2, up from pre- industrial 260 ppm We are already at 385 ppm of CO2, up from pre- industrial 260 ppm More than 0.6 degree Celsius increase during the past century More than 0.6 degree Celsius increase during the past century Melting of land- based Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets’ melting will raise sea level by 200 feet Melting of land- based Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets’ melting will raise sea level by 200 feet

5 Adverse Effects on Crops Rice yield to go down by 0.71 ton/ hectare (min. temp. 18 to 19 deg C.), 0.41 ton/ hectare for 22 to 23 deg C Rice yield to go down by 0.71 ton/ hectare (min. temp. 18 to 19 deg C.), 0.41 ton/ hectare for 22 to 23 deg C Rice yield to go down by 0.75 ton/ hectare if mean temp up by 2 deg C in high yield areas, and by.06 ton/ hect in coastal areas Rice yield to go down by 0.75 ton/ hectare if mean temp up by 2 deg C in high yield areas, and by.06 ton/ hect in coastal areas

6 Effect of one metre sea level rise Quoted by Panigrahi (2004) attrbuting to JNU 1993

7 Yes, There Are Errors  Some time back NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies corrected its data that seemed to show that 3 and not 9 of the ten hottest years in U.S. history occurred since  There is no basis for claiming that Himalayan glaciers will vanish in 2 or 3 decades.  Thereafter many "global warming deniers" have used this to reject the whole idea of global warming induced climate change.  But we ought to take steps

8 Relationship Between Climate & Energy The evolution of the society and evolution of energy sources have been going quite parallel. The evolution of the society and evolution of energy sources have been going quite parallel. The anthropogenic influence on climate has energy as an important input and hence the climate and energy are also closely related. The anthropogenic influence on climate has energy as an important input and hence the climate and energy are also closely related. Our interference in nature is also caused by our influence on energy- budget of the atmosphere. Our interference in nature is also caused by our influence on energy- budget of the atmosphere. One can't think of mitigating the climate change without understanding and managing the energy scenario. One can't think of mitigating the climate change without understanding and managing the energy scenario.

9 The Meaning of Clean Energy Consumption of energy: An accepted index to measure the prosperity of a society. Consumption of energy: An accepted index to measure the prosperity of a society. Whenever we use fuel, be it wood, coal or oil, it pollutes by way of emission of gases harmful to us, be it carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, methane or others. Whenever we use fuel, be it wood, coal or oil, it pollutes by way of emission of gases harmful to us, be it carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, methane or others. Nuclear fuels leave us with nuclear waste. Solar batteries leave a lot of waste to dispose of, and most of the others still to reach a level of comfort. Nuclear fuels leave us with nuclear waste. Solar batteries leave a lot of waste to dispose of, and most of the others still to reach a level of comfort. What’s clean energy? One has to worry about pollution in any stage during 'wells to wheels'. What’s clean energy? One has to worry about pollution in any stage during 'wells to wheels'.

10 Present World Scenario of Energy Petroleum : 40% Petroleum : 40% Coal : 26% Coal : 26% Natural Gas : 21% Natural Gas : 21% Hydroelectric: 7% Hydroelectric: 7% Nuclear : 6% Nuclear : 6%

11 Most of the energy that we hear about has its origin in the stars, literally. Most of the energy that we hear about has its origin in the stars, literally. Coal and wood are results of photosynthesis caused by sunlight. Coal and wood are results of photosynthesis caused by sunlight. Winds blow because of differential temperature- rise from solar heating of the land, oceans and atmosphere. Winds blow because of differential temperature- rise from solar heating of the land, oceans and atmosphere. Solar energy is of course from the Sun, our nearest star. Solar energy is of course from the Sun, our nearest star. Nuclear energy is because of elements that were synthesized in the interior of stars many billion years ago. Nuclear energy is because of elements that were synthesized in the interior of stars many billion years ago. Hydroelectric is based on water lifting by solar heating! Hydroelectric is based on water lifting by solar heating! This leaves only Geothermal and Tidal! This leaves only Geothermal and Tidal!

12 GH Gases Over the Past 4 lac years

13 Is Change in Climate Normal? It is known from geological and other records that sea level changes, carbon dioxide and methane level in the atmosphere and even extinctions have been more of a rule rather than exception in the history of the earth. It is known from geological and other records that sea level changes, carbon dioxide and methane level in the atmosphere and even extinctions have been more of a rule rather than exception in the history of the earth. If always so, why bother? If always so, why bother?

14 If Change Normal, Why Bother? Because we were not there at that time, But now we are here. Because we were not there at that time, But now we are here. Natural Changes are beyond our control, but anthropogenic changes are our doing. Let's bother about what is within our control Natural Changes are beyond our control, but anthropogenic changes are our doing. Let's bother about what is within our control Adjusting to fast paced changes is not easy. Many varieties of birds, vegetations etc. have vanished. Of course, even extinction was also not uncommon on earth during its 4.5 billion year life history.. Adjusting to fast paced changes is not easy. Many varieties of birds, vegetations etc. have vanished. Of course, even extinction was also not uncommon on earth during its 4.5 billion year life history.. The argument that warming will make the life in the cold areas more comfortable, has some merit. But a higher fraction of population lives close to equator. The argument that warming will make the life in the cold areas more comfortable, has some merit. But a higher fraction of population lives close to equator.

15 Changes Increase in temperature Increase in temperature Increase in evaporation, more energy leading to atmospheric disturbances Increase in evaporation, more energy leading to atmospheric disturbances More extreme events, more and unexpected storms, floods More extreme events, more and unexpected storms, floods Change in rain- patterns Change in rain- patterns Tropical diseases Tropical diseases Rise in sea- level, flooding of coastal area Rise in sea- level, flooding of coastal area

16 Some damage- estimates European heat wave- 2003: 35,000 deaths European heat wave- 2003: 35,000 deaths Chinese floods affected 24 crore people Chinese floods affected 24 crore people WHO estimated 1.5 lac deaths in 2000 due to climate change WHO estimated 1.5 lac deaths in 2000 due to climate change One can’t always estimate indirect costs due to mass migrations, pressure on resources, coral damages etc. One can’t always estimate indirect costs due to mass migrations, pressure on resources, coral damages etc.

17 What is the Way Out? Give up using Energy? Give up using Energy? Use less energy? Use less energy? Find safe and efficient sources? Find safe and efficient sources? “It’s cheaper to use energy efficiently than not using it!”

18 Not That Nothing is Being Done Coal Coal Wood Wood Thermal power Thermal power Hydrothermal Hydrothermal Diesel Diesel Petrol Petrol CNG CNG Similarly, for light from wood and oil to bulb to tube to CFL & LED! Similarly, for light from wood and oil to bulb to tube to CFL & LED!

19 Conventional and Conventional “Alternate” Sources of Energy Conventional Naturally available material like wood Naturally available material like wood Fossil fuels like coal, oil Fossil fuels like coal, oil Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fission Now CNG Now CNG

20 Why Alternative Sources Fossil fuels are limited Fossil fuels are limited They add to pollution They add to pollution The carbon dioxide concentration has gone up by ~50 % over the past 100 years The carbon dioxide concentration has gone up by ~50 % over the past 100 years “We are not running our of energy, we are running out of environment!” “We are not running our of energy, we are running out of environment!”

21 How to Choose Energy Source? Is the source possible to tap technologically? Is the source possible to tap technologically? Is it feasible to use as fuel and does technology exist for that? Is it feasible to use as fuel and does technology exist for that? Is it freely available? Is it freely available? Can it be stored? Can it be stored? Is storing economical? Is storing economical? Is that safe? Is that safe?

22 Suitable Energy The race is for getting more and more energy from less and less material and with less and less pollution. Wood, coal, diesel, oil, natural gases (LPG and CNG) show that. The race is for getting more and more energy from less and less material and with less and less pollution. Wood, coal, diesel, oil, natural gases (LPG and CNG) show that. But if one carbon and 2 oxygen atoms yield 4 electron volt energy, on reacting, one uranium atom's fission yields 200 MeV which is higher by a factor of crores! But if one carbon and 2 oxygen atoms yield 4 electron volt energy, on reacting, one uranium atom's fission yields 200 MeV which is higher by a factor of crores! Solar energy holds promise but not eficient yet. Sun sends about 1400 Joules of energy per square centimeter per second (measured on the top of the earth's atmosphere). A little averaging for day and night consideration and accounting for the absorption by the atmosphere etc. shows that earth receives over 15 terra watts of energy per year. We produce only one- fourth of this energy at present! Solar energy holds promise but not eficient yet. Sun sends about 1400 Joules of energy per square centimeter per second (measured on the top of the earth's atmosphere). A little averaging for day and night consideration and accounting for the absorption by the atmosphere etc. shows that earth receives over 15 terra watts of energy per year. We produce only one- fourth of this energy at present! Fusion will be far more convenient due to much higher availability of deuterium (hydrogen atom of atomic weight 2), but seems a distant dream as yet. Fusion will be far more convenient due to much higher availability of deuterium (hydrogen atom of atomic weight 2), but seems a distant dream as yet.

23 What are the Non- Conventional Alternate Sources of energy? Wind Energy is promising. At present Germany, USA, Denmark lead and India is progressing well. India has potential of 45,000 MW using SW monsoon from April, July winds ( kms/ hr and then NE monsoon from September. Wind Energy is promising. At present Germany, USA, Denmark lead and India is progressing well. India has potential of 45,000 MW using SW monsoon from April, July winds ( kms/ hr and then NE monsoon from September.

24 CNG As Fuel It’s compressed and not liquefied, hence less dense. As a clean fuel, Compressed Natural Gas fits the bill quite well : It’s compressed and not liquefied, hence less dense. As a clean fuel, Compressed Natural Gas fits the bill quite well : 1. It is colour less, odour less, non- toxic, non- carcinogenic, lighter- than- air gas (the smell is because of added ethyl mercaptan). 1. It is colour less, odour less, non- toxic, non- carcinogenic, lighter- than- air gas (the smell is because of added ethyl mercaptan). 2. Economical (half of petrol) and high octane (120 or more) 2. Economical (half of petrol) and high octane (120 or more) 3. Low risk as it escapes up if leak occurs. Burns only at 5- 15% conc. Auto ignition at 842 deg C (for petrol: 572, for diesel: 446 deg C) 3. Low risk as it escapes up if leak occurs. Burns only at 5- 15% conc. Auto ignition at 842 deg C (for petrol: 572, for diesel: 446 deg C) 4. Processing easier as no need for cooling or cryo tanks to store. It’s stored in thick steel tanks at 200 Kg per sq cm. 4. Processing easier as no need for cooling or cryo tanks to store. It’s stored in thick steel tanks at 200 Kg per sq cm. 5. It’s about 90% methane, with some ethane, CO2 and a little propane and some others. Causes much less pollution as bye- product is water and carbon dioxide in 2:1 mol. Ratio. 5. It’s about 90% methane, with some ethane, CO2 and a little propane and some others. Causes much less pollution as bye- product is water and carbon dioxide in 2:1 mol. Ratio.

25 Being Developed and Being Explored: Hydrogen/ Fuel Cells Hydrogen/ Fuel Cells Coal- bed Methane and gas Hydrates. Reservoirs of gas hydrates have been found off the West coast of India near Coal- bed Methane and gas Hydrates. Reservoirs of gas hydrates have been found off the West coast of India near Will they be efficient and environment- friendly? Will they be efficient and environment- friendly?

26 Vehicular Emission

27 Total Energy Efficiency Total energy efficiency is a product of efficiency of production and efficiency of energy yield when used. Hydrogen is very efficient in use but producing it demands lot of energy yet its overall efficiency is highest Gasoline ICDiesel IC Comp. hydro. IC F u e l C e l l s Diesel Hybrid Elec. Gaso. CH 4 C 2 H 5 OH Hyd. Hyd.Gaso. Hyb. Elec. CNG IC

28 Hydrogen and Hydrogen and Hydrogen (or methanol) fuel cells Hydrogen (or methanol) fuel cells

29 Hydrogen has the highest energy content per unit of weight of any known fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from the abundant water When burned in an engine, hydrogen produces effectively zero emissions When powering a fuel cell, its only by-product is pure water. Why Hydrogen?

30 Steps in Using Hydrogen as Fuel 1.Production 2.Delivery 3.Storage 4.Conversion into energy Storage of hydrogen is being attempted developing alloys of lanthanum nickel and iron (LaNi5, LaNi 0.8 Fe 0.2, as well as hydrides of magnesium, sodium and aluminum (MgH 2, NaAlH 4, Mg(AlH 4 ) 2. Graphite fibers made from carbon nano tubes and graphite have shown over 10 percent (weight wise)efficiency for storage of hydrogen. However, the road is still long and cost exorbitant.

31 Hydrogen Production The simplest is electrolysis. The other is braking down methanol and water vapour as both contain hydrogen.

32 Hydrogen Cars BMW has built 100 cars to run on Hydrogen BMW has built 100 cars to run on Hydrogen So far tested for about 1 million kms So far tested for about 1 million kms An 8 Kgs super insulated SS tank An 8 Kgs super insulated SS tank The storage is 15% of car weight The storage is 15% of car weight Fuelling takes about 8 minutes Fuelling takes about 8 minutes Left alone, half filled hydrogen tank will escape in 9 days. Left alone, half filled hydrogen tank will escape in 9 days. Runs 200 kms on hydrogen and 500 on petrol with highest speed of 230 kms/ h Runs 200 kms on hydrogen and 500 on petrol with highest speed of 230 kms/ h A biodiesel (body fat) based Ecoboat has been tested A biodiesel (body fat) based Ecoboat has been tested

33 What is A Fuel Cell? A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals. A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals.

34 How A Battery differs From a Fuel Cell How A Battery differs From a Fuel Cell A battery has all of its chemicals stored inside, and it converts those chemicals into electricity too. This means that a battery eventually "goes dead" and you either throw it away or recharge it. A battery has all of its chemicals stored inside, and it converts those chemicals into electricity too. This means that a battery eventually "goes dead" and you either throw it away or recharge it. With a fuel cell, chemicals constantly flow into the cell so it never goes dead. As long as chemicals flow into the cell, the electricity flows out of the cell. Fuel cells are usually classified by the type of electrolyte they use.

35 Proton Exchange membrane Fuel Cell The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising technologies. This is the type of fuel cell that will end up powering cars, buses and maybe even your house. The PEMFC uses one of the simplest reactions of any fuel cell. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising technologies. This is the type of fuel cell that will end up powering cars, buses and maybe even your house. The PEMFC uses one of the simplest reactions of any fuel cell.

36 The rough and porous (for high surface area) catalyst is platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth

37 Other types of Fuel Cells Alkaline fuel cell (AFC): One of the oldest designs. Has been used in the U.S. space program since the 1960s. very susceptible to contamination, so it requires pure hydrogen and oxygen. Also very expensive, so unlikely to be commercialized. Alkaline fuel cell (AFC): One of the oldest designs. Has been used in the U.S. space program since the 1960s. very susceptible to contamination, so it requires pure hydrogen and oxygen. Also very expensive, so unlikely to be commercialized. Phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC): Has potential for use in small stationary power-generation systems. It operates at a higher temperature than PEM fuel cells, so it has a longer warm-up time. This makes it unsuitable for use in cars. Phosphoric-acid fuel cell (PAFC): Has potential for use in small stationary power-generation systems. It operates at a higher temperature than PEM fuel cells, so it has a longer warm-up time. This makes it unsuitable for use in cars. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC): Best suited for large- scale stationary power generators that could provide electricity for factories or towns. This type of fuel cell operates at very high temperatures (around 1,000 deg C). Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC): Best suited for large- scale stationary power generators that could provide electricity for factories or towns. This type of fuel cell operates at very high temperatures (around 1,000 deg C).

38 ….Fuel Cells This high temperature of SOFC makes reliability a problem, but it also has an advantage: The steam produced by the fuel cell can be channeled into turbines to generate more electricity. This improves the overall efficiency of the system. This high temperature of SOFC makes reliability a problem, but it also has an advantage: The steam produced by the fuel cell can be channeled into turbines to generate more electricity. This improves the overall efficiency of the system. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC): These fuel cells are also best suited for large stationary power generators. They operate at 1,112 F (600 C), so they also generate steam that can be used to generate more power. They have a lower operating temperature than the SOFC, which means they don't need such exotic materials. This makes the design a little less expensive. Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC): These fuel cells are also best suited for large stationary power generators. They operate at 1,112 F (600 C), so they also generate steam that can be used to generate more power. They have a lower operating temperature than the SOFC, which means they don't need such exotic materials. This makes the design a little less expensive.

39 FC Bus In Vancouver, Canada

40 The catch! As a fuel clean but producing hydrogen pollutes tremendously! The real situation BATTERY Plant eff. Where electri generated : 40% Charging : 90% Motor/ inverter : 80% AC to DC : 90% SO THE NET EFFICIENCY= 26% For Fuel Cell Car, it turns out to be % Compare with petrol- which is 20% SO AT PRESENT NEARLY THE SAME BUT…

41 On the Right Road FC! Over 700 vehicles on trial world over Over 700 vehicles on trial world over Honda’s over 20 FCX Honda’s over 20 FCX Ford’s 30 Focus FCV Ford’s 30 Focus FCV About 30 Daimler- Chrysler’s buses in 10 European cities About 30 Daimler- Chrysler’s buses in 10 European cities About 13 GM’s FC- powered buses in NY About 13 GM’s FC- powered buses in NY Juelich Centre made a scooter run by hydrogen natteries (which I also rode in July- 2006!) Juelich Centre made a scooter run by hydrogen natteries (which I also rode in July- 2006!) BMW has cars ready that run on hydrogen cells BMW has cars ready that run on hydrogen cells

42 The Future Already Seen! The Altek Group announced on 22 January, 2007 that it has applied for a patent for a fully self- contained portable Alkaline Fuel Cell Power Supply System. The Altek Group announced on 22 January, 2007 that it has applied for a patent for a fully self- contained portable Alkaline Fuel Cell Power Supply System. The APS 100 based on Altek’s aluminum-air fuel cell technology with a continuous power output of 100 watts. The APS 100 based on Altek’s aluminum-air fuel cell technology with a continuous power output of 100 watts. Its efficiency (60-80%) Its efficiency (60-80%) Reduced weight, versatility, extended running time and quiet operation make it extremely well suited for the diverse power needs of military services. Reduced weight, versatility, extended running time and quiet operation make it extremely well suited for the diverse power needs of military services.

43 An Ad in USA! Switch To Hydrogen! Switch To Hydrogen! The United Nuclear Hydrogen Fuel System Kit converts your existing vehicle to run on Hydrogen. Complete kits will soon be available for various late-model cars & trucks as well as individual system components for those who choose to assemble their own kits. Included in the kits (and also available separately) is our solar powered Hydrogen Generator that manufactures the Hydrogen fuel for your vehicle at virtually zero cost. Simply put, you never have to buy Gasoline again. Since there are no major changes made to your engine, you can still run your vehicle on Gasoline at any time. We now have over 50,000 trouble-free miles on our prototype vehicles. We are currently fleet-testing our systems and are in final preparation for sales to the general public. The United Nuclear Hydrogen Fuel System Kit converts your existing vehicle to run on Hydrogen. Complete kits will soon be available for various late-model cars & trucks as well as individual system components for those who choose to assemble their own kits. Included in the kits (and also available separately) is our solar powered Hydrogen Generator that manufactures the Hydrogen fuel for your vehicle at virtually zero cost. Simply put, you never have to buy Gasoline again. Since there are no major changes made to your engine, you can still run your vehicle on Gasoline at any time. We now have over 50,000 trouble-free miles on our prototype vehicles. We are currently fleet-testing our systems and are in final preparation for sales to the general public.

44 Future Fuel-cell-powered cars should start to replace gas- and diesel-engine cars soon Fuel-cell-powered cars should start to replace gas- and diesel-engine cars soon For portable electronics like For portable electronics like laptop computers, mobile cells, even hearing aids. laptop computers, mobile cells, even hearing aids. The fuel cell will have much longer life than a battery The fuel cell will have much longer life than a battery

45 The Crystal Ball.. The fuel-cell technologies being developed for power plants will generate electricity directly from hydrogen in the fuel cell, but will also use the heat and water produced in the cell to power steam turbines and generate even more electricity. There are already large portable fuel-cell systems available for providing backup power to hospitals and factories. The fuel-cell technologies being developed for power plants will generate electricity directly from hydrogen in the fuel cell, but will also use the heat and water produced in the cell to power steam turbines and generate even more electricity. There are already large portable fuel-cell systems available for providing backup power to hospitals and factories. Use of the heat and steam generated in running turbines and producing electricity will be possible in case of cells where reaction takes place at high temperature such as in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Use of the heat and steam generated in running turbines and producing electricity will be possible in case of cells where reaction takes place at high temperature such as in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

46 Initiatives However, using the current technologies, it is too expensive to produce, store, transport, and distribute hydrogen fuel, or to build fuel cell engines. Hence developed countries are putting in lot of money. For instance USA: US$ 1.2 Billion iniative for hydrogen. Denmark announced US$ 200 million and so on. However, using the current technologies, it is too expensive to produce, store, transport, and distribute hydrogen fuel, or to build fuel cell engines. Hence developed countries are putting in lot of money. For instance USA: US$ 1.2 Billion iniative for hydrogen. Denmark announced US$ 200 million and so on. India will go for coal bed methane and gas- hydrates which’d also provide hydrogen India will go for coal bed methane and gas- hydrates which’d also provide hydrogen USA and Europe have spent tens of billions of dollars over more than a decade on fuel cell car research. These include GM, Ford, BMW, Daimler-Chrysler, Honda and other leading brands. USA and Europe have spent tens of billions of dollars over more than a decade on fuel cell car research. These include GM, Ford, BMW, Daimler-Chrysler, Honda and other leading brands. Institutions like Joint Research Centre, Juelich are actively engaged Institutions like Joint Research Centre, Juelich are actively engaged About 70 hydrogen filling plants exist world- wide i.e. in USA, Europe, Japan About 70 hydrogen filling plants exist world- wide i.e. in USA, Europe, Japan

47 The Challenges The fuel itself- high- mileage, low pollution, cheap, available in plenty, low volume, light The fuel itself- high- mileage, low pollution, cheap, available in plenty, low volume, light Its storage without loss Its storage without loss Its storage in reasonable amount (At present a car ran 550 kms on 11 Kgs of hydrogen) Its storage in reasonable amount (At present a car ran 550 kms on 11 Kgs of hydrogen) Safety considerations Safety considerations

48 Dependence on Research in Other Fields To store hydrogen, cryo- storage techniques are needed To store hydrogen, cryo- storage techniques are needed This demands very high surface to volume or surface to mass ratio. This demands very high surface to volume or surface to mass ratio. This means very small, nano- sized, particles are needed which would facilitate efficient adsorption of hydrogen e.g. material (Pt- coated C) developed provide m sq surface per gm This means very small, nano- sized, particles are needed which would facilitate efficient adsorption of hydrogen e.g. material (Pt- coated C) developed provide m sq surface per gm

49 Road Map Road Map Research on gadgets making more efficient use of energy is as much important like fuel- eff. cars Research on gadgets making more efficient use of energy is as much important like fuel- eff. cars New material for building houses as we need higher air conditioning and associated energy expenditure because house roof and walls absorb heat through sun rays. Probably new paints will help. New material for building houses as we need higher air conditioning and associated energy expenditure because house roof and walls absorb heat through sun rays. Probably new paints will help. Creative approach: On one hand, the fridge dissipates heat; on the other we spend fuel to cook by heating Creative approach: On one hand, the fridge dissipates heat; on the other we spend fuel to cook by heating Material research will assume centre stage as we transport 1000 Kg car to carry a 70 kg passenger. We need lighter, sturdier and better materials for making cars. Material research will assume centre stage as we transport 1000 Kg car to carry a 70 kg passenger. We need lighter, sturdier and better materials for making cars. Ways to generate hydrogen cleanly and then store it Ways to generate hydrogen cleanly and then store it Fusion holds potential, though still a far dream Fusion holds potential, though still a far dream Even our personal habits need change. Even our personal habits need change.

50 A Pledge Reduce the use of fossil fuels (coal, petrol, diesel etc.). Reduce the use of fossil fuels (coal, petrol, diesel etc.). We shall keep and encourage others to keep their vehicles' engines tuned to avoid pollution and conserve ozone layer. Also no idling at the crossings. Sensible driving, that is no sudden acceleration and deceleration which wastes fuel. We shall use the lowest power vehicle as far as possible. For short distances, we will walk or use bicycle, otherwise two- wheeler instead of car. We shall keep and encourage others to keep their vehicles' engines tuned to avoid pollution and conserve ozone layer. Also no idling at the crossings. Sensible driving, that is no sudden acceleration and deceleration which wastes fuel. We shall use the lowest power vehicle as far as possible. For short distances, we will walk or use bicycle, otherwise two- wheeler instead of car. Use public transport whenever possible, share vehicle by turn and so on. Vehicles consume energy, pollute atmosphere and damage ozone layer. Use public transport whenever possible, share vehicle by turn and so on. Vehicles consume energy, pollute atmosphere and damage ozone layer.

51 References 1. John Broome in Sci Ame (June 2008), John Broome in Sci Ame (June 2008), James Hansen in Sci Ame. 290,3 (2004), p.68 2.James Hansen in Sci Ame. 290,3 (2004), p.68 3.Mathew L Wald in Sci Ame 290,5 (2004), p.66 (Q about hyd. Economy) 3.Mathew L Wald in Sci Ame 290,5 (2004), p.66 (Q about hyd. Economy) Sci. Ame. March 2005 (Steven Ashley)- p. 63 Sci. Ame. March 2005 (Steven Ashley)- p. 63

52 Thanks

53 The Right to Energy The Right Energy in the Changing Climate The Right to Energy The Right Energy in the Changing Climate Dr. CM Nautiyal Dr. CM Nautiyal BSIP, 53, University Road BSIP, 53, University Road Lucknow Lucknow Someone had rightly remarked that we not running short of energy; we are running short of environment! Situation is indeed such. Even if we were to hit upon a huge hydrocarbon reservoir such as of petroleum or natural gas, or a huge coal deposit, it doesn’t solve our problem. It will give us only energy. The consumption of these resources will harm the atmosphere beyond any repair. So discovering just any source of energy is not enough. From a scenario where state of progress and prosperity of a society was measured by the energy- consumption per capita, we have reached a state where soon low energy consumption per capita will be the index! Someone had rightly remarked that we not running short of energy; we are running short of environment! Situation is indeed such. Even if we were to hit upon a huge hydrocarbon reservoir such as of petroleum or natural gas, or a huge coal deposit, it doesn’t solve our problem. It will give us only energy. The consumption of these resources will harm the atmosphere beyond any repair. So discovering just any source of energy is not enough. From a scenario where state of progress and prosperity of a society was measured by the energy- consumption per capita, we have reached a state where soon low energy consumption per capita will be the index! There are estimates that if super giants India and China’s population- growth continued at the present trend, and energy- consumption reaches the level of North Korea, they will consume as much oil as the world did in a single year in It’s difficult to find a reason why these countries should be denied a right to live at a level North Korea does! So the answer lies not in just finding new and cheaper energy sources; they should be non- polluting too. There are estimates that if super giants India and China’s population- growth continued at the present trend, and energy- consumption reaches the level of North Korea, they will consume as much oil as the world did in a single year in It’s difficult to find a reason why these countries should be denied a right to live at a level North Korea does! So the answer lies not in just finding new and cheaper energy sources; they should be non- polluting too. Climate change has focused the attention of the world on energy. It’s not that everywhere the temperature has gone up. The right way to sum up the climate change scenario is to say that the frequency of extreme events has increased. The main reason is believed to be a radical change in the energy budget of the atmosphere. The energy- generation and industrial activities cause lot of carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen etc. to be released into the atmosphere. The more of these obnoxious gases we spew into the atmosphere, the grimmer the climate change scenario becomes. The measurements on polar ice have clearly indicated an increase of 50% in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since industrial age began, and stands at about 385 parts per million in the atmosphere. Climate change has focused the attention of the world on energy. It’s not that everywhere the temperature has gone up. The right way to sum up the climate change scenario is to say that the frequency of extreme events has increased. The main reason is believed to be a radical change in the energy budget of the atmosphere. The energy- generation and industrial activities cause lot of carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen etc. to be released into the atmosphere. The more of these obnoxious gases we spew into the atmosphere, the grimmer the climate change scenario becomes. The measurements on polar ice have clearly indicated an increase of 50% in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since industrial age began, and stands at about 385 parts per million in the atmosphere. There are concerns all over. The experts are not unanimous on the degree of change or even on the change at all. There are skeptics who doubt the degree and those who vehemently deny. But one must distinguish between the climate change skeptics and the deniers. It would be right to say that climate change is happening. The degree may or may not be as high as projected or everywhere. Many glaciers are melting but not all. Minor aberrations like this notwithstanding, in general climate is behaving differently. There are serious concerns that if the Green House gases like carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen continue to increase and the Green House potential of the atmosphere goes on shooting up, a time may come when the oceans will no more act as sink for the carbon. At present, a huge chunk of the carbon that goes into the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans. With increasing There are concerns all over. The experts are not unanimous on the degree of change or even on the change at all. There are skeptics who doubt the degree and those who vehemently deny. But one must distinguish between the climate change skeptics and the deniers. It would be right to say that climate change is happening. The degree may or may not be as high as projected or everywhere. Many glaciers are melting but not all. Minor aberrations like this notwithstanding, in general climate is behaving differently. There are serious concerns that if the Green House gases like carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen continue to increase and the Green House potential of the atmosphere goes on shooting up, a time may come when the oceans will no more act as sink for the carbon. At present, a huge chunk of the carbon that goes into the atmosphere is absorbed by the oceans. With increasing

54 temperature, even this capacity of the oceans will go down (Have you seen the difference in the behaviour of a cold drink when kept in the fridge and when kept out?) temperature, even this capacity of the oceans will go down (Have you seen the difference in the behaviour of a cold drink when kept in the fridge and when kept out?) However, situation is not entirely hopeless. With a continuous improvement in energy efficient gadgets, possibility of attaining fusion in the laboratory even though somewhat remote at present and emergence of hydrogen as a clean fuel source, even though the over- all efficiency is low, it appears that we may be heading towards a cleaner energy scenario. However, situation is not entirely hopeless. With a continuous improvement in energy efficient gadgets, possibility of attaining fusion in the laboratory even though somewhat remote at present and emergence of hydrogen as a clean fuel source, even though the over- all efficiency is low, it appears that we may be heading towards a cleaner energy scenario. We all are familiar with the conventional energy sources like wood, coal, hydrocarbon (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG), nuclear fission and hydroelectricity. The last one of these is definitely most environment- friendly. But the needs of the world can’t be fulfilled by this alone. Of late, several alternative sources of energy have been developed and are in use. There are some that look really promising like Fuel Cell. Then processes like nuclear fusion are slowly being brought into the domain of probable. We all are familiar with the conventional energy sources like wood, coal, hydrocarbon (petrol, diesel, LPG, CNG), nuclear fission and hydroelectricity. The last one of these is definitely most environment- friendly. But the needs of the world can’t be fulfilled by this alone. Of late, several alternative sources of energy have been developed and are in use. There are some that look really promising like Fuel Cell. Then processes like nuclear fusion are slowly being brought into the domain of probable. In addition to the conventional sources, we now have some more sources, even if with limited production: In addition to the conventional sources, we now have some more sources, even if with limited production: Solar energy: The present efficiency of the conversion of solar energy into electricity being low, the cost of solar panels and batteries being high and free space shrinking, there are limitations. The disposal of the old panels and batteries is an additional problem but the generation is quite pollution free. Solar energy: The present efficiency of the conversion of solar energy into electricity being low, the cost of solar panels and batteries being high and free space shrinking, there are limitations. The disposal of the old panels and batteries is an additional problem but the generation is quite pollution free. Wind energy: Germany leads (rather than Denmark whose name seems to remind everyone of wind turbines) and India has a huge potential of 45,000 MW of wind driven units. In Gujarat and Maharashtra, major projects have been undertaken. Wind energy: Germany leads (rather than Denmark whose name seems to remind everyone of wind turbines) and India has a huge potential of 45,000 MW of wind driven units. In Gujarat and Maharashtra, major projects have been undertaken. Bio Fuels: Ethanol and methanol are being used as additives, independent energy sources or fuel for the cells. But the dilemma of farmers remains: To grow corn or wheat! Bio Fuels: Ethanol and methanol are being used as additives, independent energy sources or fuel for the cells. But the dilemma of farmers remains: To grow corn or wheat! Tidal energy: The tapping of tidal energy is an attractive idea but so far very limited efforts have been made. Tidal energy: The tapping of tidal energy is an attractive idea but so far very limited efforts have been made. Fuel cells using ethanol: In fuel cells, hydrogen is flown to the anode where a platinum catalyst (platinum powder coated on cloth or paper) breaks it into electrons and positive ion. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane is used to filter the positive ions through. These two travel through different parts of circuit and meet with oxygen at cathode to form water and energy. Fuel cells using ethanol: In fuel cells, hydrogen is flown to the anode where a platinum catalyst (platinum powder coated on cloth or paper) breaks it into electrons and positive ion. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane is used to filter the positive ions through. These two travel through different parts of circuit and meet with oxygen at cathode to form water and energy. Hydrogen: Burning of hydrogen as fuel produces energy and water. So obviously it’s a 100% pollution- free fuel. The problem is when we consider well-to- wheel Hydrogen: Burning of hydrogen as fuel produces energy and water. So obviously it’s a 100% pollution- free fuel. The problem is when we consider well-to- wheel

55 scenario. The process of producing hydrogen is itself quite polluting and the over –all- efficiency is not very different from hydrocarbons. scenario. The process of producing hydrogen is itself quite polluting and the over –all- efficiency is not very different from hydrocarbons. Gas hydrates: At the ocean bottom, there are huge frozen deposits of gas hydrates made of gases like methane. These are valuable as fuel and hydrogen source. Gas hydrates: At the ocean bottom, there are huge frozen deposits of gas hydrates made of gases like methane. These are valuable as fuel and hydrogen source. Coal Bed Methane: By virtue of being highly porous, coal has tremendous gas- absorption potential. Under the surface, there are coal deposits storing huge amount of methane. Tapping it can be a precious energy source. Coal Bed Methane: By virtue of being highly porous, coal has tremendous gas- absorption potential. Under the surface, there are coal deposits storing huge amount of methane. Tapping it can be a precious energy source. Geochemical energy, Geothermal energy etc. are also promising. While nuclear fusion is the most promising, it’s still a long way. For a common man, planting trees, sharing vehicles, saving on consumption of electricity, more efficient public transport system are the best routes to take. The scientists and technologists will continue to search for more energy- efficient gadgets, more environment- friendly ways to produce hydrogen and make fuel efficient cars. They will develop materials for vehicles, which are stronger and lighter. They will invent paints that will keep houses cool in summers and warm in winter, reducing the need for air conditioning. Clothes that will repulse dust because of their nano- material surface, will reduce energy spent in washing clothes. Just as we moved from wood and charcoal to diesel, oil, incandescent bulbs, tube lights, CFL and now LED light sources, still better gadgets will be developed. But there is another angle. One also has to see that the new devices are environment- friendly. Better roads, better traffic management and many such seemingly unrelated approaches will also help us fight the demon of changing climate. Geochemical energy, Geothermal energy etc. are also promising. While nuclear fusion is the most promising, it’s still a long way. For a common man, planting trees, sharing vehicles, saving on consumption of electricity, more efficient public transport system are the best routes to take. The scientists and technologists will continue to search for more energy- efficient gadgets, more environment- friendly ways to produce hydrogen and make fuel efficient cars. They will develop materials for vehicles, which are stronger and lighter. They will invent paints that will keep houses cool in summers and warm in winter, reducing the need for air conditioning. Clothes that will repulse dust because of their nano- material surface, will reduce energy spent in washing clothes. Just as we moved from wood and charcoal to diesel, oil, incandescent bulbs, tube lights, CFL and now LED light sources, still better gadgets will be developed. But there is another angle. One also has to see that the new devices are environment- friendly. Better roads, better traffic management and many such seemingly unrelated approaches will also help us fight the demon of changing climate. [The Author: Dr. CM Nautiyal is basically a physicist and a product of University of Roorkee (now IIT- Roorkee) and PRL, Ahmedabad. He is a recipient of 5 scholarships during studies and later INSA- DFG Fellowship to Germany. He received INSA Medal for Young Scientists, Vigyan Vachaspati from Vigyan Parishad, Prayag; and recognition from ISMAS, Meteoritical Soc., USA and many science clubs. In addition to75 research contributions in journals, abstract books and proceedings, he has many co- authored/ co- edited books, popular articles. He is a well known science communicator too and has led several science popularisation campaigns in addition to delivering about 350 lectures on science and science communication. He has contributed to an international encyclopedia by Sage, USA, chapters to several books and course materials. He has been on several national committees on science. He has visited several countries including France, USA, UK, Germany, Switzerland and South Africa. At present, he is scientist- in- charge of the Radiocarbon laboratory at Birbal Sahni Instt. Palaeobotany, Lucknow. [The Author: Dr. CM Nautiyal is basically a physicist and a product of University of Roorkee (now IIT- Roorkee) and PRL, Ahmedabad. He is a recipient of 5 scholarships during studies and later INSA- DFG Fellowship to Germany. He received INSA Medal for Young Scientists, Vigyan Vachaspati from Vigyan Parishad, Prayag; and recognition from ISMAS, Meteoritical Soc., USA and many science clubs. In addition to75 research contributions in journals, abstract books and proceedings, he has many co- authored/ co- edited books, popular articles. He is a well known science communicator too and has led several science popularisation campaigns in addition to delivering about 350 lectures on science and science communication. He has contributed to an international encyclopedia by Sage, USA, chapters to several books and course materials. He has been on several national committees on science. He has visited several countries including France, USA, UK, Germany, Switzerland and South Africa. At present, he is scientist- in- charge of the Radiocarbon laboratory at Birbal Sahni Instt. Palaeobotany, Lucknow. Contact: ] Contact:


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