Presentation on theme: "ANOREXIA AND BULIMIA. Introduction The worst eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia. In common, sick people have obsession for their own bodies. The."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction The worst eating disorders are anorexia and bulimia. In common, sick people have obsession for their own bodies. The majority of those people are women, currently in puberty. Anorexia can be started by stress, by the physical changes which occur during puberty and by irrigating problems in the brain. About 1,5% of the world population has anorexia. The persons who have anorexia don’t eat, even when they become very thin, they see themselves in the mirror and continue thinking they’re fat. Women with this disease have their period interrupted and lose their body form. Normally the anorexic people eat alone, hidden, and do a lot of physical exercises.
Bulimia is a kind of different anorexia. Normally the bulimic people have normal weight, but eat a lot of food in a short while and after that they feel guilty and vomit. Not all bulimic people do this kind of punishment; some others do a lot of physical exercise. Both diseases have the same treatment, because both are considered depression diseases, that’s why sick people must take anti-depressive medicine. Besides that, they have to control their diet. The disease evolution can lead to irreversible brain atrophy, heart problems, gastric disturbs and in some cases renal problems. At least 5% of the cases take to death.
ANOREXIA WHAT IS ANOREXIA? Anorexia is an eating disorder in which people starve themselves. It usually begins in young people around the onset of puberty. Individuals suffering from anorexia have extreme weight loss. People suffering from anorexia are very skinny but are convinced that they have overweight. Affected people can lose corporal weight from 15% to 50%, in the worst situations. This sickness may be associated to important psychological disorders that cause emotional behavior changes and a complete damage to the body.
CAUSES Even when there are many sociocultural situations that can cause anorexia, it’s probable that part of the population have a higher physical incident to suffer from it, independently of their context. Some of the most common causes of presenting anorexia are: The sick person obesity Mother’s obesity Losing of having sick a member of the family Parents divorce Being far from home School failure Accidents Traumatic situations
SYMPTOMS OF ANOREXIA There are many symptoms for anorexia, some individuals may not experience all of the symptoms. The symptoms include: Loss of at least 3 consecutive menstrual periods (in women). Not wanting or refusing to eat in public Weakness Brittle skin Shortness of breath Obsessiveness about calorie intake
MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF ANOREXIA There are many medical risks associated with anorexia. They include: shrunken bones, mineral loss, low body temperature, irregular heartbeat, permanent failure of normal growth, etc. Continued use of laxatives is harmful to the body. It wears out the bowel muscle and causes it to decrease in function. Some laxatives contain harsh substances that may be reabsorbed into your system.
INITIAL TREATMENT If your medical condition is not life-threatening, initial treatment likely will include: Psychological counseling. A counselor will help you learn healthy ways to think about food and your body. Medical treatment. If malnutrition or starvation has started to break down your body, medical treatment will be a top priority. Your health professional will treat any medical conditions that have been caused by anorexia Nutritional counseling. A registered dietitian will help you take charge of your weight in a healthy way. You will learn healthy eating patterns. Family therapy. Parents learn about anorexia and how to help their child change his/her diet and exercise patterns. This includes preparing meals and monitoring eating and exercising.
EXTRA INFORMATION The common age of anorexia beginning is around 12, even when most of the affected people are between 14 and 18. It’s most frequently present in medium or medium-high social levels. In a 95% of the cases, anorexia affects to young women, however lately has been present in men, adult women and even in children. Anorexia can be divided in two kinds: Restrictive: the weight lose is got through diet or intensive physical exercise and the sick person doesn’t over-eat or take laxatives. Bulimic: the sick person takes laxatives, even when he/she has eaten just a little food; or throws out the food eaten on purpose.
BULIMIA DEFINITION It’s an eating disorder characterized by recurrent eating periods, followed by compensatory behaviors.
PRACTICES AND SIGNALS The most common form—practiced by more than 75% of people with bulimia- is self-induced vomiting,sometimes called : Purging or fasting The use of laxatives, enemas, diuretic, and over exercising are also common. The word bulimia derives from the Latin (būlīmia) from the Greek βουλ ῑ μια (boulīmia; ravenous hunger),
ACCORDING TO THE DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS (DSM-IV TR) PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, THE CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSING A PATIENT WITH BULIMIA ARE:DIAGNOSTIC AND STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode is characterized by both of the following: -Eating, in a fixed period of time, an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat under similar circumstances. -A lack of control over eating during the episode: a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating.. Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight. These symptoms occur at least twice a week on average and persist for at least 3 months.
TYPES There are two sub-types of bulimia nervosa: purging and non purging. Purging Type: the patient uses self-induced vomiting and other ways to rapidly remove food from the body before it can be digested; such as laxatives, diuretics, and enemas. Non-purging Type: occurring in approximately 6%-8% of cases, in which the patient uses excessive exercise or fasting after a binge to offset the caloric intake after eating.
9.4% Australia7.3% Norway 5.1% USA 3 % México GEOGRAPHY OF BULIMIA
EFFECTS These cycles often involve rapid and out-of-control eating, which may stop when stomach hurts from overextension, followed by self-induced vomiting or other forms of purging. This cycle may directly cause: Chronic gastric reflux after eating. Electrolyte imbalance Esophagitis, or inflammation of the esophagus. Oral trauma because of lacerations to the lining of the mouth or throat. Peptic ulcers The frequent contact between teeth and gastric acid, in particular, may cause: - Severe caries - Perimolysis, or the erosion of tooth enamel.
The image a person really has is not the same as the one seen in the mirror.