Presentation on theme: "Harnessing the Power of Voltaic Cells Batteries and Corrosion"— Presentation transcript:
1Harnessing the Power of Voltaic Cells Batteries and Corrosion
2Commercial Voltaic Cells Voltaic Cells are convenient energy sourcesBatteries is a self-contained group of voltaic cells arranged in series.Advantage: PortableDisadvantage: Very Expensive (.80€ / Kwatt-h)Need cells in series to provide powerThe Processes occurring during the discharge and recharge of a lead-acid battery. When the lead-acid battery is discharging (top) it behaves like a voltaic cell: the anode is negative (electrode-1) and the cathode is positive (electrode-2). When it is recharging (bottom), it behaves like an electrolytic cell; the anode is positive (electrode-2) and the cathode is negative (electrode-1).What is this thing called Air?Why is it important for Life?How is plant Earth different from other planets in the Soalr System?What are the problems with the air we breath?Why is our air quality deteriorating?As citizens of Mother Earth What can we do?Easy to propose and talk the game, but can we back it up?Are we ready for some sacrafice?
3Dry Cell or LeClanche Cell Dry CellsInvented in the 1860’s the common dry cell or LeClanche cell, has become a familiar household item. An active zinc anode in the form of a can house a mixture of MnO2 and an acidic electrolytic paste, consisting of NH4Cl, ZnCl2, H2O and starch powdered graphite improves conductivity. The inactive cathode is a graphite rod.Anode (oxidation)Zn(s) g Zn2+(aq) = 2e-Cathode (reduction). The cathodic half-reaction is complex and even today, is still being studied. MnO2(s) is reduced to Mn2O3(s) through a series of steps that may involve the presence of Mn2+ and an acid-base reaction between NH4+ and OH- :2MnO2 (s) + 2NH4+(aq) + 2e- g Mn2O3(s) + 2NH3(aq) + H2O (l)The ammonia, some of which may be gaseous, forms a complex ion with Zn2+, which crystallize in contact Cl- ion:Zn2+(aq) + 2NH3 (aq) + 2Cl-(aq) g Zn(NH3)2Cl2(s)Overall Cell reaction:2MnO2 (s) + 2NH4Cl(aq) + Zn(s) g Zn(NH3)2Cl2(s) + H2O (l) + Mn2O3(s) Ecell = 1.5 VUses: common household items, such as portable radios, toys, flashlights,Advantage; Inexpensive, safe, available in many sizesDisadvantages: At high current drain, NH3(g) builds up causing drop in voltage, short shelf life because zinc anode reacts with the acidic NH4+ ions.The dose makes the poison. Any thing can be toxic given in ample quantity. Some require less to be lethal.Dose are measured in mg(toxins)/Kg(body wt.)CN- 1mg / Kg (wt) Table 10.31mg 4 hair strand,125lb lb ( kg)LD50 is a statistial analysis of data. It is based onthe lethal dosage of substance (mg/kg) necessary to kill 50% of a large populatin of rats.But can this data extrapolated to the human population?(Thalomide story, Dioxin and Agent-orange)A quantitative measure of toxicity
4Dry Cell or LeClanche Cell Invented by George Leclanche, a French Chemist.Acid version: Zinc inner case that acts as the anode and a carbon rod in contact with a moist paste of solid MnO2 , solid NH4Cl, and carbon that acts as the cathode. As battery wear down, Conc. of Zn+2 and NH3 (aq) increases thereby decreasing the voltage.Half reactions: E°Cell = 1.5 VAnode: Zn(s) g Zn+2(aq) + 2e-Cathode: 2NH4+(aq) + MnO2(s) + 2e- g Mn2O3(s) + 2NH3(aq) + H2O(l)The dose makes the poison. Any thing can be toxic given in ample quantity. Some require less to be lethal.Dose are measured in mg(toxins)/Kg(body wt.)CN- 1mg / Kg (wt) Table 10.31mg 4 hair strand,125lb lb ( kg)LD50 is a statistial analysis of data. It is based onthe lethal dosage of substance (mg/kg) necessary to kill 50% of a large populatin of rats.But can this data extrapolated to the human population?(Thalomide story, Dioxin and Agent-orange)A quantitative measure of toxicityAdvantage:Inexpensive, safe, many sizesDisadvantage:High current drain, NH3(g) build up, short shelf life
5Alkaline Battery Alkaline Battery The alkaline battery is an improved dry cell. The half-reactions are similar, but the electrolyte is a basic KOH paste, which eliminates the buildup of gases and maintains the Zn electrode.Anode (oxidation)Zn(s) + 2OH- (aq) g ZnO(s) + H2O (l) + 2e-Cathode (reduction).2MnO2 (s) + 2H2O (l) + 2e- g Mn(OH)2(s) + 2OH-(aq)Overall Cell reaction:2MnO2 (s) + H2O (l) + Zn(s) g ZnO(s) + Mn(OH)2(s) Ecell = 1.5 VUses: Same as for dry cell.Advantages: No voltage drop and longer shell life than dry cell because of alkaline electrolyte; sale ,amu sizes.Disadvantages; More expensive than common dry cell.
6Alkaline Battery Leclanche Battery: Alkaline Version In alkaline version; solid NH4Cl is replaced with KOH or NaOH. This makes cell last longer mainly because the zinc anode corrodes less rapidly under basic conditions versus acidic conditions.Half reactions: E°Cell = 1.5 VAnode: Zn(s) + 2OH-(aq) g ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e-Cathode: MnO2 (s) + H2O(l) + 2e- g MnO3 (s) + 2OH-(aq)Nernst equation: E = E° - [(0.592/n)log Q], Q is constant !!Advantage:No voltage drop, longer shelf life.Disadvantage:More expensive
7Mercury Button Battery Mercury and Silver batteries are similar.Like the alkaline dry cell, both of these batteries use zinc in a basic medium as the anode. The solid reactants are each compressed with KOH, and moist paper acts as a salt bridge.Half reactions: E°Cell = 1.6 VAnode: Zn(s) + 2OH-(aq) g ZnO(s) + H2O(l) + 2e-Cathode (Hg): HgO (s) + 2H2O(l) + 2e- g Hg(s) + 2OH-(aq)Cathode (Ag): Ag2O (s) + H2O(l) + 2e- g 2Ag(s) + 2OH-(aq)Advantage:Small, large potential, silver is nontoxic.Disadvantage:Mercury is toxic, silver is expensive.
8Lead Storage BatteryLead-Acid Battery. A typical 12-V lead-acid battery has six cells connected in series, each of which delivers about 2 V. Each cell contains two lead grids packed with the electrode material: the anode is spongy Pb, and the cathode is powered PbO2. The grids are immersed in an electrolyte solution of 4.5 M H2SO4. Fiberglass sheets between the grids prevents shorting by accidental physical contact. When the cell discharges, it generates electrical energy as a voltaic cell.Half reactions: E°Cell = 2.0 VAnode: Pb(s) + SO42- PbSO4 (s) +2 e- E° = 0.356Cathode (Hg): PbO2 (s) + SO H+ + 2e- PbSO4 (s) + 2 H2O E° = 1.685VNet: PbO2 (s) + Pb(s) + 2H2SO4 PbSO4 (s) + 2 H2O E°Cell = 2.0 VNote hat both half-reaction produce Pb2+ ion, one through oxidation of Pb, the other through reduction of PbO2. At both electrodes, the Pb2+ react with SO42- to form PbSO4(s)
9Nickel-Cadmium Battery Battery for the Technological AgeRechargeable, lightweight “ni-cad” are used for variety of cordless appliances. Main advantage is that the oxidizing and reducing agent can be regenerated easily when recharged. These produce constant potential.Half reactions: E°Cell = 1.4 VAnode: Cd(s) + 2OH-(aq) Cd(OH)2 (s) + 2e-Cathode: 2Ni(OH) (s) + 2H2O(l) + 2e- Ni(OH)2 (s) + 2 OH-(aq)
10Fuel CellsBefore everyone was environmetally conscious, major industrialize nations contributed mostly to air pollutionPollution has respect for no boundary.Q: Is it fair for World Health Organization(WHO) to set limits to 3rd world countries now that they’re becoming industrialize?
11Fuel Cells; BatteriesFuel Cell also an electrochemical device for converting chemical energy into electricity.In contrast to storage battery, fuel cell does not need to involve a reversible reaction since the reactant are supplied to the cell as needed from an external source. This technology has been used in the Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle program.Half reactions: E°Cell = 0.9 VAnode: 2H2 (g) + 4OH-(aq) 4H2O(l) + 4e-Cathode: O2 (g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e- 4OH-(aq)Advantage:Clean, portable and product is water. Efficient (75%) contrast to 20-25% car, 35-40% from coal electrical plantDisadvantage:Cannot store electrical energy, needs continuous flow of reactant, Electrodes are short lived and expensive.
12Corrosion Not all spontaneous redox reaction are beneficial. Natural redox process that oxidizes metal to their oxides and sulfides runs billions of dollars annually. Rust for example is not the direct product from reaction between iron and oxygen but arises through a complex electrochemical process.Rust: Fe2O3 • X H2OAnode: Fe(s) g Fe e- E° = 0.44 VCathode: O2 (g) + 4H e- g 2H2O (l) E° = 1.23 VNet: Fe+2 will further oxidized to Fe2O3 • X H2O
13Conditions for Corrosion Conditions for Iron Oxidation:Iron will oxidize in acidic mediumSO2 g H2SO4 g H+ + HSO4+Anions improve conductivity for oxidation.Cl- from seawater or NaCl (snow melting) enhances rustingConditions for Prevention:Iron will not rust in dry air; moisture must be presentIron will not rust in air-free water; oxygen must be presentIron rusts most rapidly in ionic solution and low pH (high H+)The loss of iron and deposit of rust occur at different placm on objectIron rust faster in contact with a less active metal (Cu)Iron rust slower in contact with a more active metal (Zn)
14Iron Corrosion; Chemistry Most common and economically destructive form of corrosion is the rusting of iron. Rust is not a direct product of the reaction between iron and oxygen but arises through complex electrochemical process. The features of a voltaic cell can help explain this process.Iron will not rust in dry air; moisture must be present.Iron will not rust in air-free water; oxygen must be presentIron rusts most rapidly in ionic solutions and at low pH (High H+)The loss of iron and the depositing of rust often occur at different places on the same object.Iron rust faster in contact with a less active metal (such as Cu) and more slowly in contact with a more active metal (such as Zn).