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Chapter 13 Chemistry
Please select a Team. 1. Team 1 2. Team 2 3. Team 3 4. Team 4 5. Team 5
Water is 0 5 10 1. A polar molecule 2. A nonpolar molecule 3. A polar bear 4. Bipolar
A Review of Water Water is a polar molecule made up of one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, H2O Water’s hydrogen bonds create a unique compound that is less dense in the solid phase and needs lots of energy to break IMF bonds.
The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and tends to minimize the area of the surface is: 10 0 5 1. Surface area 2. Surface tension 3. Surfing tension 4. Surface
Surface Tension The inward force, or pull, that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid is called surface tension. All liquids have a surface tension, but water’s surface tension is higher than most.
A surfactant is: 10 0 5 1. Any substance that interferes with hydrogen bonding and reduces surface tension 2. Any substance that strengthens hydrogen bonding and increased surface tension 3. I have no idea 4. I really have no idea!
Surfactant Factoids Soaps and detergents are surfactants. Adding a detergent to beads of water on a greasy surface will cause them to collapse and spread out.
Solutions are: 10 0 5 1. Hard to find 2. Homogeneous mixtures 3. Unable to be separated by filtering 4. Answers 1-3 5. None of these 6. I really have no idea
In a solution 10 0 5 1. A solvent dissolves the solute 2. A solute dissolves the solvent
Solvents and Solutes Solvents DISSOLVE solutes. In sugar water, water is the solvent and sugar is the solute. Solvents and solutes can be solids, liquids, or gas. Solute particles can be atoms, ions, or molecules. Heating the solvent decreases dissolving rates by adding kinetic energy and increasing rate of movement.. An aqueous solution is one that contains dissolved substances. NaCl (aq)
Solvents and Solutes If you filter a solution through filter paper, both the solute and the solvent pass through the filter. 15.2
Saturation is: 1. The state of my brain currently 2. The rings of Saturn 3. A solution that cannot dissolve any more solute 10
Saturation/Unsaturated Saturated: a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions Unsaturated: a solution that contains less soluted than a saturated solution and can dissolve more solute Supersaturated: a solution holding more dissolved solute than what is required to reach equilibrium
Solvation is: 1. The process where you deduce the answer to solve a problem 2. The process where positive and negative ions of a ionic solid become surrounded by solvent molecules 3. The process where dipole covalent molecules are surrounded by solvent molecules 4. The way to heaven 10 0 5
Solvation As individual solute ions break away from a crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become surrounded by solvent molecules, and the ionic crystal dissolves.
Polar solvents such as water dissolve ionic compounds and polar compounds. 1. True 2. False 10 0 5
Nonpolar solvents such as gasoline dissolve nonpolar compounds. 1. True 2. False 10 0 5
Like Dissolves Like Polar solvents dissolve polar substances and nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar substances. Oil is nonpolar and does not dissolve in water, a polar solvent. Sharpie “permanent” markers are actually waterproof. The ink is a nonpolar substance which a polar substance like water cannot dissolve. What nonpolar solvent could you use?
The word miscible means: 10 1. Liquids that cannot dissolve into each other 2. Liquids that attract ions 3. Liquids that are able to dissolve into each other 4. A young woman named Sybil that isn’t married.
Miscible/Immiscible Oil and Water DON’T MIX!!! The obvious result of “Likes Dissolve Likes” Water and Oil are polar/non-polar liquids, and are IMMISCIBLE.
Which makes a solute dissolve FASTER into a solvent? 10 1. Increase the temperature of the solvent 2. Agitate or stir it 3. Use the biggest size of solute available. 4. All of the above 5. 1 and 2 6. 1 and 3
3 Things to Faster Dissolution Rates Increase the temperature of the solvent INCREASE the amount of surface area with SMALLER pieces for greater exposure (i.e., granules NOT chunks). Agitate or stir it to add kinetic energy
An electrolyte is: 1. A compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or a molten state 2. A compound that cannot conduct electric current 3. A compound that conducts electric current only in a solid state 10 0 5
Electroltyes All ionic compounds are electrolytes because they dissociate into ions, which carry charges. Is sugar an electrolyte? An electrolyte is a compound that can conduct an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or molten state. The bright glow shows that sodium chloride is a strong electrolyte because nearly all the dissolved sodium chloride exists as separate Na + and Cl – ions.
A compound that contains water of hydration is called an aquifer. 1. True 2. False 10 0 5
Hydrates A compound that contains water of hydration CuSO4 5H2O
A suspension is: 1. A bridge that hangs over the PeeDee River 2. A mixture in which particles settle upon standing. 3. A mixture in which particles cannot be separated by filtration 4. A compound that must have no contact with a surface 10 0 5
Suspensions A suspension differs from a solution because the particles of a suspension are much larger and do not stay suspended indefinitely. Suspensions are heterogenous because at least two substances can be clearly identified.
Which one is a colloid? 10 0 5 1. Milk 2. Whipped cream 3. Marshmallow 4. Fog 5. 1 and 4 6. All of the above
Colloids A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture containing particles that range in size from 1 nm to 1000 nm, between a suspension and solution.
Coagulation of Colloids A colloidal system can be destroyed, or coagulated, by the addition of ions having a charge opposite to that of the colloidal particles. The added ions neutralize the charged colloidal particles. The particles can clump together to form heavier aggregates and precipitate from the dispersion.
One unique characteristic of a suspension is particles in it: 1. Settle due to gravity 2. Are too small to be seen 3. Cannot be filtered 10 0 5
Particles in a solution are: 1. Large particles or aggregates 2. Ions, atoms, and small molecules 3. Large molecules or particles 10 0 5
The effects of gravity on a colloid system are: 1. Unstable, sediment forms 2. Stable, does not separate 3. Unstable, particles revert to gas 10 0 5
A suspension is: 1. Homogeneous 2. Heterogeneous 3. Ambigeneous 4. Ungeneous 10 0 5