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Importance of Nutrition: Food is Fuel Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas Ph.D. Student – Exercise Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Importance of Nutrition: Food is Fuel Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas Ph.D. Student – Exercise Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Importance of Nutrition: Food is Fuel Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas Ph.D. Student – Exercise Science

2 Nutrition Overview Macronutrients & their role in athletic performance Food sources & why they’re important Energy systems Hydration Putting it all together

3 Macronutrient: Carbohydrate The body’s preferred energy source Two types (exogenous): – Simple: Rapidly increase blood sugar levels Provide quick energy Good options for pre- and post-workout Slow digestion by comparing with PRO – Complex: Slowly released into blood Have a higher fiber content Better during meals, not during workouts Endogenous carbohydrate – Muscle glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the muscle – Liver glycogen: carbohydrate stored in the liver

4 Carbohydrate: Food Choice Checklist 1 st Choice Vegetables: asparagus, avocado, kidney beans, peppers, carrots Fruits: apple apricots, bananas, mango, peach, pear Grains: popcorn, steel cut oats, whole wheat, brown rice, wild rice 2 nd Choice3 rd Choice Vegetables: acorn squash, baked potato, pumpkin, spaghetti squash, baked beans Fruits: fruit juices, dried fruits Grains: corn tortillas, couscous, whole grain pancakes, whole grain pasta/waffles/pas ta, whole wheat crackers Potato chips Corn bread Rice cakes White bagel/bread White rice French bread Flour tortillas Cake, candy Cookies, ice cream, pie Soda Honey

5 Macronutrient: Protein The building blocks of human and animal structure Functions include: – Formation of the brain, nervous system, blood, muscle, skin, and hair – Transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, minerals and oxygen – Needed for muscle growth and to repair muscle after exercise – Helps decrease soreness & fatigue – Helps with satiety.

6 Protein: Food Choice Checklist 1 st Choice Lean beef: flank steak, sirloin, tenderloin, rump roast, ~90% lean ground beef Lean pork: pork loin, tenderloin, center loin Poultry: skinless chicken breast, turkey cutlets, ~90% lean ground Seafood: salmon, tuna, cod, trout, shrimp, catfish Dairy: skim milk, low- fat cottage cheese, low-fat plain yogurt 2 nd Choice3 rd Choice 85% lean ground beef, turkey, chicken Dark meat chicken Beef prime ribs, beef short ribs Ground lamb Pheasant with skin Roasted chicken with skin 1% or 2% milk or cottage cheese Whole egg Bacon Bologna Chicken fried steak Hot dogs Salami Summer sausage Breakfast sausage Buffalo wings Beef ribs, pork ribs, 70% lean ground pork or beef Ice cream, whip cream, whole milk

7 Protein: Plant Sources Almonds Black beans Black eyed peas Brown rice Chick peas Couscous Garbonzo beans Hummus Lentils Lima beans Peanut butter Pecans Pinto beans Quinoa Pistachios Soy burger Soy beans Spinach

8 Macronutrient: Fat The most energy-dense macronutrient (based on kcal/g) Functions include: – Insulation – Cell structure – Nerve transmission – Vitamin absorption – Hormone production

9 Fats: Food Choice Checklist Monounsaturated Fats Almonds (oil) Avocados Brazil nuts Canola oil Cashews Ground flaxseed Hazelnuts Macadamias Olive oil Peanut butter Peanut oil Pecans Pistachios Pumpkin seeds Polyunsaturated Fats Saturated Fats Omega-3: Alaska king crab, Atlantic herring, ground flaxseeds, pecans, pine nuts, Pollock, scallop, shrimp, whitefish, wild salmon Omega-6: corn oil, cottonseed oil, peanut oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, sunflower seeds Alfredo sauce Bacon, bologna, bratwurst Butter Cake Cheese sauces Chocolate Coconut oil Cookies Cream cheese Creamy sauces Fried chicken Ice cream Mayonnaise Etc.

10 LEAST PROCESSED SLIGHTLY PROCESSED MOST How to make healthy food choices

11 Why are these food choices important? Lets think through it: – Food is fuel and hunger is your body’s request for fuel Carbohydrates: – Major source of energy for the body – Includes sugars, starches, and dietary fibers Proteins: – Help build and maintain body structures and regulate body processes Fats: – Provide structure for the body – Carry fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) – Provide the starting material for making many hormones – Can be used as fuel if enough oxygen is present

12 With Exercise… …our bodies utilize different energy sources depending on: – Exercise intensity – Exercise duration

13 Energy Systems Overview Energy System Used How Long Used ForExample of ExerciseFood Source Ratio Used Adenosine Triphosphate & Creatine Phosphate (ATP/PC) System ~2-5 minutes of activity yd distances – backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle 55% carbohydrate 25% protein 20% fat Glycolytic System ~20 minutes of activity yds – freestyle 55% carbohydrate 30% protein 15% fat Oxidative Energy System ~45 minutes of activity Long distance events (triathlons), synchronized swimming, and water polo 60% carbohydrate 20% protein 20% fat

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15 Hydration Our bodies are made up of 80% water Water is essential for: – Nutrient absorption – Body temperature regulation – Protection of vital organs – Serves as a medium for biochemical reactions – Maintains a high blood volume for optimal athletic performance If fluid intake does not meet the demands of fluid losses, dehydration can occur

16 Effects of Dehydration Percent Body Weight Lost 0-1%  Thirst 2%  Stronger thirst, vague discomfort, loss of appetite 3%  Decreasing blood volume, impaired physical performance 4%  Increased effort for physical work, nausea 5%  Difficulty in concentrating 6%  Failure to regulate excess temperature 7-8%  Dizziness, labored breathing w/ activity, increased weakness 9-10%  Muscle spasms, delirium, and wakefulness 11%  Inability of decreased blood volume to circulate normally, failing renal function

17 Hydration Tips Try to develop some type of water “schedule” Although you may not notice that you are sweating in the pool, 30 mins in humidity can lead to dehydration Drink: – 2 cups of water 2 hours before practice – 5-10 oz. of water every minutes during practice 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz. – 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost Sports Drinks – Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr.

18 Putting it all together… Pre-workout During workout Post-workout Hydration

19 Food Timing Important for adequate energy during workouts! – Aim to consume either a meal or snack every 3-4 hrs. – 2-4 hrs before practice: meal(s) – 30 mins before practice: small CHO snack Develop food familiarity – Don’t try new foods on or close to a competition day if you are unsure of how your body will react. Try to pre-plan your day to make sure you properly fuel your body.

20 Pre-Workout Immediately before a workout (30 min– 1 hr) – CHO rich snack or meal Liquid meal replacements an option – Small amount of PRO Will decrease post- exercise muscle soreness – Low fiber & fat content Decrease transit time Decrease gastric upset Pre-Workout Snack Ideas: – Piece of fruit (i.e. banana) – Cottage cheese + with crackers – Granola bar – Low-fat yogurt and banana or raisins – Graham crackers + peanut butter + low-fat chocolate milk – Cinnamon raisin mini-bagel spread with 1 Tbsp. peanut butter

21 During Workout Combination of CHO, PRO, & Electrolytes – Easily chewable, bite-sized foods Ex: pieces of granola bar/sports bar, sports gels, pieces of fruit Fluid Replacement – Water & Sports drinks Work on Timing – Takes time to learn what works best for you – Experiment during practices that are less rigorous and not immediately before a meet Raw nuts/seeds (ex: 15 almonds, 20 peanuts, 30 pistachios) Lean beef jerky Dried fruit Peanut butter sandwich Energy bar or granola bar (watch sugar content) Dried apricots + ¼ c. nuts (e.g. peanuts, almonds, etc) Apple slices + cheddar cheese Whole wheat pita + hummus

22 Post-Workout Begin recovery with a snack or meal within min Replace muscle fuel (CHO) – Snack Ideas: Sports drink and/or protein/sports bar Graham crackers with peanut butter Chocolate milk & banana Fruit & yogurt smoothie Replenish water and electrolyte losses Meal Ideas: – Rice bowl with beans, cheese, salsa, avocado + whole grain tortilla chips or whole wheat tortilla – Stir fry with lean steak, broccoli, bell peppers, carrots + brown rice – Whole wheat pita sandwich with turkey and veggies + pretzels + low-fat milk – Salmon with roasted vegetables and brown rice

23 Hydration Before practice: – 2 cups of water 2 hours During practice: – 5-10 oz. of water every minutes 1 medium mouthful = ~ 1 oz. After practice: – 2-3 cups of fluid for every pound of body weight lost Sports Drinks – Best used for practices lasting > 1 hr. OR when food source not available during/following exercise

24 Questions? Ashley Binns, M.S. University of Arkansas (210)

25 References (American Dietetic Association) Clark, N. (2008). Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook (4 th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Dunford, M.D. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: A Practice Manual for Professionals (4 th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Insel, P. (2006). Discovering Nutrition (2 nd ed.). Jones and Barlett Publishers, Inc. Litt, A. (2004). Fuel for Young Athletes. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. [Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition (SCAN)] Rosenloom, C.A. (Ed.). (2006). Sports Nutrition: Client Education Handouts. American Dietetics Association.


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