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ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed.

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Presentation on theme: "ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 1 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 11 Manufacturing Processes

2 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 2 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Select Manufacturing Processes  Manufacturing process decisions  Deformation processes  Casting processes  Sheet metalworking  Polymer processing  Machining  Finishing/Joining  Assembly  Material-Compatibilities & Process-Capabilities  Material costs, Tooling costs, Processing costs

3 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 3 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Make a Mountain Bike  Select Processes to Manufacture a Bike Top Tube Rear Derailleur Front Brake Rear Brake Saddle Seat Post Pedal Handle Bar Down Tube Fork (Courtesy of Trek Bicycle, 2002)

4 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 4 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Manufacturing Process Decisions  How to choose the specific manufacturing processes?  How do the selected materials influence the choice of manufacturing processes?  Would product function or performance issues influence the choice of processes?  What criteria should be used to select processes?  What are the Priority of the Criteria?  Who makes the final decisions?

5 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 5 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Design for Manuf (DFM) Guidelines  Keep Functional & Physical Characteristics as SIMPLE as Possible Simple & Sturdy parts are Easier to Make, and have Higher Reliability  Design for the LOWEST COST Production Method Critical for HI-VOLUME Parts

6 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 6 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Design for Manuf (DFM) Guidelines  Design for the Minimum Number for Processing Steps (what’s a “step”?) Try to ELIMINATE Steps thru Thoughtful Product Design  Specify Tolerances NO TIGHTER than Actually Needed OverToleranced Design leads to Increased Cost thru –UnNeeded Processing Efforts –“False Positive” Scrap

7 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 7 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Part-Processing Sequence  Primary Process  alter the (“raw”) material’s basic shape or form. e.g., Casting Rolling Forging Drawing Molding Extruding That is, take a “bolb” of material and give it a basic shape; e.g. –Angle Iron –Tube/Pipe –Sheet/Plate

8 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 8 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Part-Processing Sequence  Secondary Process  add or remove geometric features from the basic forms alter the (“raw”) material’s basic shape or form. e.g., Machining of a brake drum casting (flat surfaces) Drilling/punching of refrigerator housings (sheet metal) Trimming of injection molded part “flash”

9 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 9 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Part-Processing Sequence  Tertiary Process  surface treatments. e.g., Polishing Painting Heat-Treating Joining Plating Anodizing Thin Film Coating

10 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 10 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Process Selection Criteria  Compatibility with Selected Materials  Dimensional Accuracy and Tolerance  Size & Weight Capacity  Lead Time  Min/Max Production Quantities  Surface Finish  Need for Post- Process Operations e.g., Heat Treating

11 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 11 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Cost Factors  Influence of Special Desired Features e.g., Threaded Inserts, DoveTail Grooves  Materials Availability  Need for Special Tooling  PostProcess Finish Operations  Special Handling Equipment  Special Inspection Equipment  Yield i.e., Scrap Rate

12 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 12 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Manuf Process Classifications

13 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 13 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Deformation Processes  Rolling  Extrusion  Drawing  Forging  Rolling Plastic deformation Rollers in compression thick slab thin sheet

14 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 14 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Roll To Different Final Shape slab bloom billet sheet or coil bar orrod structural ingot

15 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 15 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Extrusion & Drawing  Extrusion  Drawing Ram OutPut Cross Sections Extrusion Die Billet Pulling force OutPut Cross Sections Drawing Die Billet

16 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 16 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Forging (Closed Die Version) Blocked preform Gutter Ram pressure Flash

17 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 17 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Casting Processes  Sand Casting  Die Casting  Investment (a.k.a. “Lost Wax”) Casting 

18 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 18 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Sand Casting Core Riser Sprue Runner Drag Flask Cope Gate Parting line

19 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 19 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Die Casting Parting line Plunger Sprue Moving die Stationary die Ejector pins Molten metal

20 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 20 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Investment Casting Wax pattern is cast Wax removed by melting Molten metal solidifies in cast Ceramic mold is removed Ceramic mold (hardened slurry) 4-part pattern tree

21 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 21 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design SheetMetal Fabrication  Drawing  Punching  Shearing  Spinning  Bending  Blanking 

22 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 22 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Deep Metal Drawing

23 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 23 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Metal Spinning

24 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 24 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design PolyMer Processes  Compression Molding  Blow Molding  Injection molding  Transfer Molding  Reaction Injection Molding (RIM) 

25 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 25 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Blow Molding

26 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 26 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Injection Molding

27 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 27 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Compression Molding

28 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 28 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Transfer Molding

29 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 29 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Machining Processes

30 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 30 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Machining  Material Removal  Sawing ≡ using a toothed blade.  Milling ≡ form a flat surface by a rotating cutter tool.  Planing ≡ using a translating cutter as workpiece feeds.  Shaping ≡ form a translating workpiece using a stationary cutter.  Boring ≡ increasing diameter of existing hole by rotating the workpiece.  Drilling ≡ using a rotating bit forming a cylindrical hole.  Reaming ≡ to refine the diameter of an existing hole.  Turning ≡ form a rotating workpiece.  Facing ≡ form turning workpiece using a radially fed tool.  Grinding ≡ form a surface using an abrasive spinning wheel.  Electric Discharge Machining ≡ by means of a spark.

31 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 31 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Surface Finish Capability

32 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 32 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Finishing Processes

33 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 33 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Anodizing

34 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 34 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Assembly  Joining

35 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 35 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Gas Shielded Arc Welding  MIG (Metal Inert Gas) a.k.a., Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) METAL Wire Electrode CONSUMED  TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) a.k.a., Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) TUNGSTEN Electrode NOT Consumed

36 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 36 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Matls & Manuf Compatibility Material Properties Manufacturing Processes COMPATIBLE materials & processes

37 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 37 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Material-Process Compatibility

38 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 38 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Manufacturing Costs Total Manufacturing Cost = Material + Tooling + Processing raw mat’ls molds labor fixtures electricity jigs supplies tool bits O/H (deprec.) TMC = M + T + P (6.1)

39 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 39 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Material Cost per Part Let M = total materials costs (raw, bulk) q = production quantity Then material costs per part, c M is c M = M/q = (cost/weight x weight) / number of parts Let’s reorganize the variables in the equation above c M = [cost/weight] [weight/number of parts] = (cost/weight) (weight/part), and therefore c M = cost/part

40 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 40 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Material Cost per Part (cont.) Let c w = material cost per unit weight, and w p = weight of finished part w w = weight of wasted material (the scrap)  = Scrap-to-Useful Ratio → [wasted material weight]/[finished weight] = w w / w p Then the material cost per part, c M is c M = c w (w p + w w ) = c w (w p +  w p ) (6.2) c M = c w w p (1+  ) (6.3) e.g. sand casting c M = ($1/lb)(1lb/part)(1+.05) = $1.05/part

41 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 41 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Tooling Cost per Part Let T= total cost of molds, fixtures per production run q = number of parts per run Then c T = T/q (6.4) e.g. sand casting c T = ($10,000/run) / (5000 parts/run) = $2.00/part

42 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 42 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Processing Cost per Part Let c t = cost per hour, (machine rate + labor) t = cycle time (hours per part) then c P = c t t (6.5) e.g. sand casting c P = ($30/hr) (0.3 hrs/part) = $9/part

43 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 43 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design TOTAL Cost per Part Cost per part, c = c M +c T +c P c = c w w p (1+  ) + T/q+c t t (6.6) e.g. sand casting c = $1.05+$2.00+$9.00 c = $12.05 / part

44 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 44 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Example  5000 Part Run $45 of Bronze Part is due to Machining

45 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 45 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Run Volume Sensitivity A ≡ Sand Casting B ≡ Inj. Molding C ≡ Machining

46 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 46 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design How to Lower Part Cost  In Cost Eqn Minimize the SUM of Terms c = c w w p (1+  ) + T/q+c t t (6.6)       1)purchase less expensive materials, 2)keep our finished part weight low 3)produce little manufactured waste (scrap, flash, etc.) 4)design simple parts that require less expensive tooling 5)make many parts per production run (i.e., use large quantities between ReTooling) 6)choose a manufacturing process that has a low-cycle-time & low-cost-per-hour

47 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 47 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design All Done for Today Electro Chemical Machining

48 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 48 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design Bruce Mayer, PE Registered Electrical & Mechanical Engineer Engineering 11 Appendix

49 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 49 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design ElectroPolishing  Benefits of Electropolishing - Electropolishing produces a number of favorable changes in a metal part which are viewed as benefits to the buyer. All of these attributes translate into selling advantages depending upon the end use of the product. These include: Brightening Burr removal Total passivation Oxide and tarnish removal Reduction in surface profile Removal of surface occlusions Increased corrosion resistance Increased ratio of chromium to iron Improved adhesion in subsequent plating Reduced buffing and grinding costs Removal of directional lines Radiusing of sharp edges Reduced surface friction Stress relieved surface Removal of hydrogen Electropolishing produces the most spectacular results on 300 series stainless steels. The resulting finish often appears bright, shiny, and comparable to the mirror finishes of "bright chrome" automotive parts. On 400 series stainless steels, the cosmetic appearance of the parts is less spectacular, but deburring, cleaning, and passivation are comparable.

50 ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt 50 Bruce Mayer, PE Engineering-11: Engineering Design ECM  What is the Electrochemical Machining Process ? The process is based on Michael Faraday's Law of electrolysis, which is normally used in the electro plating of metals. Electrochemical machining is the reverse of plating, the work-piece is made the anode, which is placed in close proximity to an electrode (cathode), and a high- amperage direct current is passed between them through an electrolyte, such as salt water, flowing in the anode-cathode gap. Metal is removed by anodic dissolution and is carried away in the form of a hydroxide in the electrolyte for recycling or recovery.  A major advantage of electrochemical machining is that it can be used as a de burring or machining process on any metal, no matter how hard or corrosion resistant it is, without creating any residual thermal or mechanical stress in the work-piece.  The ECD process produces smooth, burr free edges and ECF can produce smooth, three dimensional forms with a good surface finish in single plunge forming pass. The process is simple to operate and offers fast production rates for difficult to conventionally machine alloys, with low running and tooling costs.  ECM does not create any physical or thermal stress during machining and components may be machined either before or after heat treatment. Metal removal rates are approximately 60 cubic mm per minute per 1000 amperes DC current employed. Surface finish may be less than 0.4 microns for some materials. Otherwise difficult to conventionally machine alloys can be easily machined or de-burred by ECM.  Examples include the stainless steels, high performance and high temperature alloys such as Inconel, Rene, Hastelloy, Titanium, Waspalloy and the latest generation corrosion resistant nickel alloys such as 617 and Alloy 59.


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