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TEMPLATE DESIGN © L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Ingestion Maintains Performance during a Competitive Basketball Game Jay R. Hoffman, FACSM, David R. Williams, Nadia S. Emerson, Mattan W. Hoffman, Adam J. Wells, Daniele M. McVeigh, William P. McCormack, Gerald T. Mangine, Adam M. Gonzalez, Maren S. Fragala Sport and Exercise Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL ABSTRACTRESULTSRESULTS (CONT.) METHODS REFERENCES PURPOSE: Examine the efficacy of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG) ingestion on basketball performance, including jump power, reaction time, shooting accuracy and fatigue during a basketball game. METHODS: Ten women (21.2 ± 1.6 years; height: ± 8.7 cm; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg), all scholarship NCAA Division I basketball players, volunteered for this study. Subjects participated in four trials, each consisting of a 40-min basketball game with controlled time-outs for rehydration. During the first trial (DHY) subjects were not allowed to rehydrate, and the total weight lost during the contest was used to determine fluid replenishment during the subsequent three experimental trials. During one trial subjects consumed only water (W), while during the other two trials subjects consumed the AG supplement marketed as Sustamine™ mixed in water using either a low dose (1 g per 500 ml) (AG1) or high dose (2 g per 500 ml) (AG2) concentration. RESULTS: During DHY subjects lost 1.72 ± 0.42 kg (2.3% loss of their body mass). No differences in fluid intake (1.55 ± 0.43 L) were seen between rehydration trials. A 12.5% (p = 0.016) difference in basketball shooting performance was noted between DHY and AG1 and an 11.1% (p = 0.029) difference was seen between AG1 and W. Visual reaction time was significantly greater following AG1 (p = 0.014) compared to DHY. Differences (p = 0.045) in fatigue, as determined by player loads, were seen only between AG2 and DHY. No significant differences were seen in the pre to post game differences in either peak or mean vertical jump power during any trial. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, rehydration with AG appears to maintain basketball skill performance and visual reaction time to a greater extent than water only. INTRODUCTION SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS To examine the efficacy of two different doses (1 g per 500 ml and 2 g per 500 ml) of AG on basketball performance, including jump power, reaction time, shooting ability and fatigue during a basketball game. PURPOSE RESULTS (CONT.) SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS Glutamine ingestion during acute dehydration stress is reported to enhance fluid and electrolyte absorption resulting from intestinal disorders [1 – 3], but it’s effects may not be consistent . This is possibly related to stability issues of glutamine in the gut. When glutamine is combined with alanine the ability to enhance electrolyte and fluid absorption appears to be greater than glutamine alone, likely via a combination of greater stability and an enhanced rate of absorption via specific ion transporters within intestinal epithelia . The greater stability of the alanine-glutamine dipeptide (AG) appears to be quite evident at a low pH . This could have important implications for athletes during competition. Recently, acute ingestion of AG was reported to enhance fluid uptake and reduce the magnitude of performance decrement, more than water alone, during exercise to exhaustion under hypohydrated conditions . This has important implications during athletic performance, where dehydration can play a critical role in the outcome of a contest. For instance, a significant performance decrement has been shown with hypohydration levels of only 2% in basketball players [8,9]. This level of hypohydration has been shown to decrease field goal percentage in basketball players by 8%, clearly affecting the potential outcome of a game. Considering that a thirst sensation may not appear until this level of hypohydration has already been reached , it becomes critical for athletes to rehydrate even when they do not feel the need to drink. Furthermore, rehydration does appear to be a major issue among basketball players. Nearly half of professional basketball players assessed prior to competitive games were found to be dehydrated prior to the onset of a basketball game, and that fluid intake during the games was not able to compensate for the pregame hypohydration . Subjects: Ten women volunteered for this study (21.2 ± 1.6 years; height: ± 8.7 cm; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg). All subjects were scholarship athletes playing for the University’s Women’s basketball team. The study protocol was a double-blind cross-over design. Testing Protocol: Data collection occurred on four separate occasions. Each session required subjects to participate in a 40-min basketball game (normal duration for a NCAA college basketball game). To simulate an actual competition, a 2-min time out was used at the 10-min mark of each half, and a 10-minute halftime separated the first and second halves. Subjects were divided into two equally talented teams as determined by the team’s player captains. The team members remained the same for each game. Thus level of competition (subjects competing against each other) was the same for each contest. Interestingly, each team won two games. All subjects were expected to begin each game in a euhydrated state. Prior to each contest a urine sample was analyzed for urine specific gravity (Usg) by refractometry to document euhydration; Usg ≤ was defined as euhydration. If a subject’s Usg > she was requested to ingest 500 ml of water and retested. 1.Nath SK, Dechelotte P, Darmaun D, Gotteland M,.Rongier M, Desjeux JF. (15N) and (14C) glutamine fluxes across rabbit ileum in experimental diarrhea. Am. J. Physiol :G312 – G Silva AC, Santos-Neto MS, Soares AM, Fonteles MC, Guerrant RL, Lima AA. Efficacy of a glutamine-based oral rehydration solution on the electrolyte and water absorption in a rabbit model of secretory diarrhea induced by cholera toxin. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr : van Loon FP, Banik AK, Nath SK, Patra FC, Wahed MA, Darmaun D, Desjeux JF, Mahalanabis D. The effect of L-glutamine on salt and water absorption: a jejuna perfusion study in cholera in humans Eur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 8: Li Y, Xu B, Liu F, Tan L, Li J. The effect of glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition on nutrition and intestinal absorptive function in a rat model Pediatr. Surg. Int. 22: Lima AA, Carvalho GH, Figueiredo AA, Gifoni AR, Soares AM, Silva EA, Guerrant RL.. Effects of an alanyl-glutamine-based oral rehydration and nutrition therapy solution on electrolyte and water absorbtion in a rat model of secretory diarrhea induced by cholera toxin Nutr. 18: Fürst P. New developments in glutamine delivery J. Nutr. 131: (suppl). 7.Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Kang J, Rashti SL, Kelly N, Gonzalez AM, Stec M, Andersen S, Bailey BL, Yamamoto LM, Hom LL, Kupchak BR, Faigenbaum AD, Maresh CM. Examination of the efficacy of acute L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine during Hydration Stress in Endurance Exercise J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 7:8. 8.Dougherty KA, Baker LB, Chow M, Kenney WL. Two percent dehydration impairs and six percent carbohydrate drink improves boys basketball skills Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 38: Hoffman JR, Stavsky H, Falk B. The effect of water restriction on anaerobic power and vertical jumping height in basketball players Int. J. Sports Med. 16: Rothstein A, Adolph EF, Wells JH. Voluntary dehydration In Adolph EF (ed) Physiology of Man in the Desert. New York: Interscience Statistical Analysis Since the primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the efficacy of different hydration strategies on the ability to maintain basketball performance, all data assessed prior to and following each game were converted into a ∆ score (Post results – Pre results). All performance data were then analyzed using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. In the event of a significant F-ratio, post hoc comparisons using the Fisher’s least square difference method was applied to determine pairwise differences. A criterion alpha level of p 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Results of this study indicate that female basketball players lose approximately 2.3% of their body mass during a game in which they are not permitted to rehydrate. Despite a significant loss of body fluid during DHY subjects were able to maintain jump power throughout the game, but basketball shooting performance and reaction time was significantly impaired. Rehydration trials using AG was able to maintain basketball shooting accuracy to a better extent than water alone, and ingestion of AG1 also enhanced visual reaction time. Subjects consuming the supplement were able to respond to a visual stimulus quicker than when dehydrated. No significant differences in visual reaction time were observed in subjects ingesting water compared to the dehydrated condition. Lower body reaction time was significantly reduced when subjects were not permitted to rehydrate, however no differences were seen between water and AG ingestion. In conclusion, rehydration with AG appears to maintain basketball skill performance and visual reaction time to a greater extent than water only. These effects are likely mediated by enhanced fluid and electrolyte uptake from the gut and subsequent preservation of neural function that commands physical activities involving fine motor control. a b
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