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# Welcome back from spring break! Week 12: Monday Do Now 1.Name one place that you would like to travel to. 2.Why do you want to go there?

## Presentation on theme: "Welcome back from spring break! Week 12: Monday Do Now 1.Name one place that you would like to travel to. 2.Why do you want to go there?"— Presentation transcript:

Welcome back from spring break! Week 12: Monday Do Now 1.Name one place that you would like to travel to. 2.Why do you want to go there?

In a different color pen make corrections to your quiz. If you finish early, help a classmate Once you are done, place your quiz in your Test Folder Corrections to PT Trends Quiz

Elements are determined by their atomic number Atomic number = Number of protons Atomic number does not change, therefore the number of protons will not change Elements

In a neutral atom… Number of protons = Number of electrons However, in an ion, the number of electrons will change Elements

An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost at least one electron If an atom gains an electron, it will have a negative charge If an atom loses an electron, it will have a positive charge Why? Ions

Ions with a positive charge are called cations Atom will have more protons Positive ions +++++++++

Ions with a negative charge are called anions Atom will have more electrons Negative ions -- -- -- -- --

Lithium with a +1 charge = Li +1 Fluorine with a -1 charge = F -1 Examples of Ions

Normally, Lithium has 3 electrons 3 negative electrons -3 3 positive protons +3 (-3) + (+3) = 0 Example A

Lithium with a +1 charge = Li +1 Li +1 has lost an electron 2 negative electrons -2 3 positive protons +3 (-2) + (+3) = +1 Example A

Normally, Fluorine has 9 electrons 9 negative electrons -9 9 positive protons +9 (-9) + (+9) = 0 Example B

Fluorine with a -1 charge = F -1 F -1 has gained an electron 10 negative electrons -10 9 positive protons +9 (-10) + (+9) = -1 Example B

Write the number of protons and electrons the element normally has and then determine the new number of protons and electrons given the charge of the ion *Independent Practice*

Definition: the outermost electrons of an atom

Full Valence Electron Shell

What is a full shell? A full shell is 8 valence electrons Elements are more stable with 8 valence electrons Elements will gain or lose some valence electrons in order to obtain 8 valence electrons

Elements want a full shell An element with less than 4 valence electrons will lose electrons. This is why Alkali Metals (1 valence electron) are the most reactive metals. They are very close to a “full” shell.

Elements want a full shell An element with more than 4 valence electrons will gain electrons. This is why Halogens (7 valence electrons ) are the most reactive non-metals. They are very close to a “full” shell.

“Full” Valence Electron Shell Noble gases are “inert” or un-reactive because their outer shell of valence electrons is full with 8 electrons

Anion formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Chlorine7Gain 1Cl - 1 Sulfur Nitrogen

Anion formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Chlorine7Gain 1Cl - 1 Sulfur6Gain 2S - 2 Nitrogen

Anion formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Chlorine7Gain 1Cl - 1 Sulfur6Gain 2S - 2 Nitrogen5Gain 3N - 3

Cation formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Sodium1Lose 1Na +1 Calcium Boron

Cation formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Sodium1Lose 1Na +1 Calcium2Lose 2Ca +2 Boron

Cation formation Element# Valence Electrons Gain or lose electrons? Ion that will form Sodium1Lose 1Na +1 Calcium2Lose 2Ca +2 Boron3Lose 3B +3

Fill in chart Circle all cations *Independent Practice*

Week 12: Monday Exit Ticket Iodine has a negative 1 charge 1.Is Iodine an anion or a cation? 2.Write how many electrons and protons Iodine -1 would have.

*Monday Homework* Copy these elements down on a piece of paper. Make a chart like the independent practice and fill it out. 1. Lithium (Li) 2. Beryllium (Be) 3. Iodine (I) 4. Arsenic (As) 5. Krypton (Kr)

Week 12: Tuesday Do Now 1.What is an ion? 2.Classify the following as either cations or anions a.Bromine (Br) b.Potassium (K) c.Magnesium (Mg) d.Sulfur (S)

Electrolytes

All ions carry an electric charge Electrolytes are substances that become ions in solution and acquire the ability to conduct electricity. They are present in the human body in a specific balance that is necessary for the function of our cells and organs Electrolytes

NaCl (s) → Na + (aq) + Cl − (aq) (Na + ), (K + ), (Ca 2+ ), (Mg 2+ ), (Cl − ), (HPO 4 2− ), (HCO 3 − )

Page R5 in appendix A Read Electrolyte Balance in the Body and answer the following 5 questions If you finish early, check out the Sodium-Potassium Pump on page R6

Using the information you have just read, you will act as a doctor and answer several questions about your patients’ electrolyte balances Leave your book open to page R5, you will need to refer to Table 1B Doctor Activity

A patient comes in with a Na+ level of 180 mmol/L. What should you be worried about? Hypernatremia Increased urine excretion (peeing too much). What happens if you lose too much water? Dehydration You are the doctor

A patient comes in with a K+ level of 2.0 What should you be worried about? Hypokalemia. Gastrointestinal conditions What do you think gastrointestinal issues are? Gastro = stomach, Intestine = intestines. Stomach and intestine problems: stomach upset You are the doctor

A patient comes in with a Na+ level of 120. What should you be worried about? Hyponatremia. Vomiting, diarrhea What do you think is a problem that could come from vomiting and diarrhea? Dehydration from water loss You are the doctor

A patient comes in with a K+ level of 6.0. What should you be worried about? Renal failure What organ are we talking about when we say “renal failure” Kidneys You are the doctor

Kidneys

Normal kidney Renal failure kidney

A patient comes in with a Cl- level of 90. What should you be worried about? Hypochloremia: acute infection, burns. What does the word acute mean? Temporary You are the doctor

Record your answers in your notes Take the sodium IQ quiz on page R7

Challenge Question: High pressure lamps (used along highways and in parking lots) contain the elements _____________ and ____________ in addition to sodium. Break

Lewis Dot Diagrams X Draw the chemical symbol Treat each side as a box that can hold up to two electrons Count the valence electrons Start filling the boxes - don’t make pairs unless you need to

Lewis Dot Diagram O Oxygen has 6 electrons in its valence shell Start putting them in the boxes.

Lewis Dot Diagram This is the Lewis symbol for oxygen. O

Lewis Dot Diagram Li Be B C Lewis diagrams of second period elements

Lewis Dot Diagram Li Be B C Lewis diagrams of second period elements

Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams for all elements given You should notice a pattern *Independent Practice*

Week 12: Tuesday Exit Ticket 1.Define the term electrolyte 2.Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for Sodium 3.What do the dots in #2 represent?

Week 12: Wednesday Do Now 1.Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for Fluorine (F) 2.Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for Potassium (K)

White Board Activity Review of Lewis Dot Diagrams

Boron (B) Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Nitrogen (N) Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Chlorine (Cl) Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Magnesium Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Neon Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Bromine Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Bromine -1 Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Lithium +1 Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Arsenic -3 Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

The ion of Sodium Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

The ion of Iodine Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

The ion of Phosphorous Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for…

Please return all white boards & markers

Lewis Dot Structure & Bonding

Na + Cl Which element is more electronegative?

Na + Cl Na Cl Cl is more electronegative. Therefore, Cl will steal an electron from Na.

Formation of NaCl Na + Cl Na + Cl - Na becomes Na +1 the cation Cl becomesCl -1 the anion The + and - charges attract each other and form a bond

F + Li Which element is more electronegative?

F is more electronegative. Therefore, F will steal an electron from Li F + Li F Li

F becomes F -1 the anion Li becomesLi +1 the cation The + and - charges attract each other and form a bond F + Li F - Li + Formation of LiF

Mg + O Which element is more electronegative?

Mg + O Mg O O is more electronegative. Therefore, O will steal 2 electrons from Mg

Mg + O Mg +2 O -2 Mg becomes Mg +2 the cation Cl becomesO -2 the anion The + and - charges attract each other and form a bond

Break Challenge Question Write out the electron configuration for the bromine ion Br -1

Independent Practice Questions? Ask 3 other students before you ask Ms. McCullough

Week 12: Wednesday Exit Ticket Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for Sulfur (S) and Barium (Ba) individually and then show how an ionic bond will form.

Week 12: Thursday Do Now Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for Sodium (Na) and Bromine (Br) individually and then show how an ionic bond will form.

Bonding Key Points

1. There are 3 types of bonds Ionic Polar Covalent Non-polar Covalent

2. The difference between ionic and covalent bonds Ionic bonds: – One atom steals electrons from the other atom Covalent bonds: – Two atoms share electrons

3. The difference in electronegativity between the two atoms will determine the type of bond that forms Difference of 3.3 to 1.7 Ionic Difference of 1.7 to 0.3 Polar Covalent Difference of 0.3 to 0.0 Non-polar Covalent

Chemical Bonding Notes Read the 3 sections & complete notes – Introduction to Chemical Bonding (Pg 165) – Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds (Pg 168) – Ionic Bonding and Ionic Compounds (Pg 180) Not all of the blanks are for bolded vocabulary words. You will have to read thoroughly.

What type of bond will form?

Practice Problem A What type of bond will form between Lithium and Fluorine? Hint: you need to look up the electronegativity value of both elements on page 153

What type of bond will form between Lithium and Fluorine? What is the difference in electronegativity? Lithium: 1.0 Fluorine: 4.0 4.0 – 1.0 = 3.0 Ionic Bond! Practice Problem A

Practice Problem B What type of bond will form between Oxygen and Hydrogen? Hint: you need to look up the electronegativity value of both elements on page 153

What type of bond will form between Oxygen and Hydrogen? What is the difference in electronegativity? Oxygen: 3.5 Hydrogen: 2.1 3.5 – 2.1 = 1.4 Polar Covalent Bond! Practice Problem B

Index Card Activity Every person will receive 3 index cards labeled: – I (Ionic) – PC (Polar Covalent) – NPC (Nonpolar Covalent) I will put up 2 elements on the board and based on their electronegativities, you will decide what type of bond will form

Sodium and Chlorine

3.0 – 0.9 = 2.1 Ionic Bond

Sulfur and Oxygen

3.5 – 2.5 = 1.0 Polar Covalent Bond

Calcium and Oxygen

3.5 – 1.0 = 2.5 Ionic Bond

Carbon and Hydrogen

2.5 – 2.1 = 0.4 Polar Covalent Bond

Hydrogen and Hydrogen

2.1 – 2.1 = 0 Non-polar Covalent Bond

Nitrogen and Oxygen

3.5 – 3.0 = 0.5 Polar Covalent Bond

Potassium and Bromine

2.8 – 0.8 = 2.0 Ionic Bond

Fluorine and Fluorine

4.0 – 4.0 = 0.0 Non-polar Covalent Bond

Potassium and Iodine

2.5 – 0.8 = 1.7 50% Ionic 50% Polar Covalent Bond

Week 12: Thursday Exit Ticket 1. What are the 3 types of bonds? 2. What type of bond would form between Hydrogen and Sulfur? 3. What type of bond would form between 2 atoms of Nitrogen?

Week 12: Friday Do Now 1. Ionic bonds _____ electrons 2. Covalent bonds _____ electrons 3. What type of bond would form between an atom of Nitrogen and Oxygen?

Covalent Bonds

Types of Covalent Bonding Single bond- one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms Chlorine-Chlorine Cl-Cl

Types of Covalent Bonding Double bond- two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms Oxygen-Oxygen O-O

Types of Covalent Bonding Triple bond- three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms Nitrogen-Nitrogen N-N

Examples A, B, and C

Drawing Covalent Bonds in Molecules

Steps to draw a covalent bond 1.Write out all atoms in the molecule 2.Draw Lewis Dot Diagrams for each atom in the molecule 3. Count the total number of valence electrons to be shared among the atoms 4. Arrange the atoms to form a skeleton structure for the molecule Each atom should now have an octet Circle the electron pair bonds. (Each atom wants a full shell of 8) (Exception: hydrogen wants only 2) 5. Draw the electron pairs as lines. These are the covalent bonds. 1.)

Drawing Covalent Bonds in Molecules Silane: SiH 4 Ammonia: NH 3 Hydrogen sulfide: H 2 S

Carbon Dioxide: CO 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHxHjnS 5y5E

Week 12: Friday Exit Ticket Using Lewis Dot Diagrams… 1.Draw the bond between Lithium and Sodium 2.Draw the bond between two atoms of Bromine

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