Presentation on theme: "Washington Electric Energy Systems Symposium University of Washington June 15 th 2011 Patricia Hoffman U.S. Department of Energy."— Presentation transcript:
Washington Electric Energy Systems Symposium University of Washington June 15 th 2011 Patricia Hoffman U.S. Department of Energy
Technologies generation, infrastructure, smart grid, electric vehicles, storage, etc. Markets business models, cost allocation, wholesale power trading, utilities, vendors, etc. Policies state RPS, federal CES, FERC, PUC’s, environmental regulations, siting, etc. The Grid Risk Risk Risk
SystemsNowNear-termLong-Term GenerationCoal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, Central Optimized GenerationBalance central/distributed TransmissionSystem monitoring by based on limited parameters Sensor-based monitoring by operators Automatic switchable network Expanded Contingency Analysis DistributionUtilities perform operations manually (high latency) Real-time tools to improve reliability and system efficiency Integration of PEVs, real-time operations and dynamic reconfiguration and protection- Ability to Microgrid CustomerSome demand- response programs, especially among commercial and industrial customers; most residential customers on fixed rates All customers being offered a variety of technologies and pricing policies to better establish demand-side management practices Customers are partners with utilities in the management of electricity. Utility business model: neutral arbitrator of the grid or an energy service company?
Benefit Category Benefit Sub-category Specific Outcomes Economic Improved Asset Utilization Optimized Generator Operation (utility/ratepayer) Deferred Generation Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer) Reduced Ancillary Service Cost (utility/ratepayer) Reduced Congestion Cost (utility/ratepayer) T&D Capital Savings Deferred Transmission Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer) Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments (utility/ratepayer) Reduced Equipment Failures (utility/ratepayer) T&D O&M Savings Reduced Distribution Equipment Maintenance Cost (utility/ratepayer) Reduced Distribution Operations Cost (utility/ratepayer) Reduced Meter Reading Cost (utility/ratepayer) Theft ReductionReduced Electricity Theft (utility/ratepayer) Energy EfficiencyReduced Electricity Losses (utility/ratepayer) Electricity Cost Savings Reduced Electricity Cost (consumer) Reliability (and Risk) Power Interruptions Reduced Sustained Outages (consumer) Reduced Major Outages (consumer) Reduced Restoration Cost (utility/ratepayer) Power Quality Reduced Momentary Outages (consumer) Reduced Sags and Swells (consumer) EnvironmentalAir Emissions Reduced Carbon Dioxide Emissions (society) Reduced SO X, NO X, and PM-10 Emissions (society) Energy DiversityEnergy “Security” Reduced Oil Usage (society) Reduced Wide-scale Blackouts (society) Economics Market Operations Policy - Incentives Reduced volatility Reduced Electricity Cost (consumer) Adapted from *Methodological Approach for Estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects, EPRI, January 2010.
5 TheARRA programs estimate that they will train approximately 30,000 American workers to help modernize the nation’s electrical grid and implement smart grid technologies in communities across the country. Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics
Transformers Control Systems components Assessment of Critical Components
Generation Opportunities/Options Transformational Technologies for Central Generation in Wind, Solar, Storage Central and Distributed Generation- balanced approach Reuse of Vehicle batteries for Community Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Systems – going beyond Combined Heat and Power
Distribution and Demand
5168 billion kWh Load curves – increased peaking Plug-in hybrids (could increase demand 25%) More electrically sensitive equipment (2.5x)* 3653 billion kWh Hybrids, No PHEVs Electrically-sensitive equipment (limited consideration - PQ) Demand Transformation Expanding Digital Economy Power quality needs Demand growth 20092035 * RAND Digital Study, 2001 Changing load curves Vehicle electrification Demand response Energy management systems Changing operational paradigms Active consumer participation New Utility Business Models To enable and adapt to these changes, the distribution infrastructure must evolve to meet the new and growing challenges
Optimized control of voltage and reactive power (Volt/VAR) requirements resulting in improved energy efficiency, including an ability to undertake conservative voltage reduction (CVR) Impact of Distribution Automation Technology Dominion Virginia Power applied CVR at its Trabue station in Midlothian where 6,000 customers in the test area saved roughly $260,000 in energy costs, or about 2.7 percent of their overall consumption during the past year. Many empirical studies indicate a reduction in distribution system voltage reduces energy consumption. How CVR achieves this energy reduction has been a topic of debate. *“Evaluation of Conservative Voltage Reduction (CVR) on a National Level [PNNL-19596]”, July 2010, http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-19596.pdf
Source: Georgia Tech Potential for High Impact: Can address capacity issues, improve asset utilization, reduce need for new transmission build out, enhance reliability and resiliency, facilitate automation and restoration, improve power quality, and enable new markets and services 13
Energy Management + Demand Response Demand Response Optimized profile Original profile Adaptive set-points Optimization can save energy as well as provide reduces peak requirements Standards vs Markets
Statistically rigorous studies are being conducted to: Identify factors influencing customer acceptance of dynamic electricity rates and AMI technology Quantify the effect of dynamic rates on electricity consumption (peak and overall load reduction) Understand the relative and combined contributions of pricing, information feedback, and control technology on consumer behavior Provide statistically-relevant data with analysis to researchers and decision-makers Oklahoma Gas and Electric (OG&E) is undertaking a 2 yr study with 4,600 residential and 650 small businesses to determine load reduction resulting from combinations of dynamic rates and enabling technologies OG&E expects to avoid building two 165 MW peaking units based upon achieving a 20% customer participation rate (on an opt-in basis) Understanding the Impact of AMI and Dynamic Prices on Consumer Behavior
Outage Management Systems – Reliability Arizona’s Public Service’s self- healing grid pilot in Flaggstaff has avoided more than 300,000 customer outage minutes in eight separate events since July 2010 Cullman Electric Cooperative has implemented an enterprise GIS system that includes real-time location and tracking from Air-Trak. The system displays all power outages and pinpoints vehicle locations.
Research Opportunities: Communications, Controls and Modeling
Source: C. DeMarco, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison
FUTURE: Phasor technology is expected to offer great benefit for real-time operations and power system planning, including integrating renewable and variable resources, automated controls for transmission and demand response, increasing transmission system throughput, and improving system modeling. August 14, 2003 Sources: AEP; PNNL Improving Wide-Area Situational Awareness through SynchroPhasor Technology Grid Stress – phase angle measurements Grid Robustness – damping status and trend Dangerous Oscillations – low damping Frequency Instability – Frequency variation across interconnection Voltage Instability – Low Voltage Zones Reliability Margin – “How far are we from the edge” – Sensitivity metrics
AMI — Automated Metering InfrastructureISO — Independent System Operator This chart captures a representative architecture. It is recognized that there are multiple technological options available for each vertical (Home Intelligence, Feeder, Substation and Transmission Automation) respectively. It is not the intent of this chart to represent a comprehensive depiction of ALL technologies. Communication Line Electrical Power Line Effective Controls Require Seamless Communications (and Data Access) across the Electric System
24 Power Electronic Devices Breakdown Voltage Potential Operating Temperature Potential Semiconductor Switch Targets 20 kV, 100 A, 20 kHz Operating temperatures > 200 °C Needs: Improved materials processing, thermal management Cost and performance of devices limit the application of power electronic systems Advances in semiconductor materials (SiC, GaN, diamond) and new architectures will help improve this technology
Source: OSHA Source: NASA 25
26 Arresters & Limiters Protects equipment from surges due to lightning strikes, faults, and interruptions HVDC limiters also possible Two-way power flows (increased distributed generation, use of electric vehicles, community storage, etc.) can lead to fault currents that are much larger than previously experienced or anticipated Advanced protection devices can leverage power electronic advances
Energy Storage Requirements and Targets Life cycle cost (¢/kWhr/cycle) CAES Pumped Hydro Distributed storage Central storage End user storage Stationary 1 kW100 kW10 MW1 GW 10 kW 1 MW 100 MW Li ion Battery NAS Battery ZEBRA Battery Vehicle Energy Density and Cost Lifetime and Capital Cost Requirements PHEV Target $250/kWh Flow Batteries: ZrBr, VBR, PS etc Lead Acid Battery 100 ¢/kWh/cycle 10 ¢/kWh/cycle High-Power Fly Wheels 1 ¢/kWh/cycle Stationary Storage Target $100-150/kWh, or 4 ¢ /kWh/cycle Higher cost OK for some power applications UPS & Power Quality T&D Grid Support & Load Shifting Bulk Power Mgmt
Redox & Advanced Flow Batteries Iron-containing “MetIL” Potential for High Impact: Improved membranes enables higher electrolyte ion concentrations, low maintenance Increased electrolyte ion concentration increases energy density, range of operation Novel liquid-metal and redox chemistries, durable electrodes Benefit – 2x energy density, greater cycle life, improved efficiency, 2x cost reduction Power determined by cell/stack, energy determined by electrolyte tank capacity Cost, stability, energy density are challenges Many system chemistries
SB B Traditional tubular sodium – sulfur cell, operated >300- 350 o C Newly developed planar sodium metal-halide cell, operated <250 o C Planar stack, operated <250 o C. Potential for High Impact: Improved sealing and thin solid electrolytes enable planar design Cathode optimization enables reduced temperatures Novel nanofiber synthesis enables room temperature sodium-ion system Benefit - 2x power density, 50% energy density improvement, 2x cost reduction Mn 2 O 3 orthorhombic lattice
SECURITY and RISK Cyber protection is still under development for this industry – How do we accelerate protection of the grid from cyber concerns? Other low frequency – high impact events also present concerns for example solar flares. Does the grid have adequate protection? What are the expectations? How much security is enough and at what cost? US Manufacturing –transformers Vulnerability of Energy Infrastructure Interdependencies of electric and energy systems Infrastructure protection Increased globalization Materials and resource limitations All-hazard risks will continue to increase Blackouts Aging Infrastructure Vulnerability of assets 20092035
Develop and Integrate Protective Measures Detect Intrusion & Implement Response Strategies Sustain Security Improvements Sustain Security Improvements Measure and Assess Security Posture Energy asset owners are able to perform fully automated security state monitoring and control systems networks with real-time remediation Next-generation control systems components and architectures produced with built-in, end-to-end security will replace older legacy systems Control systems networks will inform operator response to provide contingency and remedial actions in response to attempted intrusions Implement effective incentives through Federal and state governments to accelerate investment in secure control system technologies and practices
Physical Security SEL WatchDog Managed Switch Research, develop and commercialize a managed switch for the control system that uses whitelist filtering and performs deep packet inspection
Physical Security SEL Padlock The Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) dongle (that secures communications for intelligent electronic devices at the distribution level), detects physical tampering and co- operates with the SEL managed switch.
DDoS attacks email propagation of malicious code “stealth”/advanced scanning techniques widespread attacks on DNS infrastructure executable code attacks (against browsers) automated widespread attacks GUI intruder tools hijacking sessions Internet social engineering attacks packet spoofing automated probes/scans widespread denial-of-service attacks techniques to analyze code for vulnerabilities without source code increase in worms sophisticated command & control anti-forensic techniques home users targeted distributed attack tools increase in wide-scale Trojan horse distribution Windows-based remote controllable Trojans (Back Orifice) 1990 2010 coordinated cyber-physical attacks malicious counterfeit hardware control systems targeted Anticipated Attacks supply-chain compromises widespread attacks on web applications massive botnets adaptive, high- impact, targeted attacks on critical infrastructures persistent malware infiltration & persistent surveillance widespread attacks on client-side software increase in targeted phishing & vishing widespread attacks using NNTP to distribute attack High Low Attack Sophistication Average Intruder Knowledge Source: CERT/Software Engineering Institute/Carnegie Mellon University Trustworthy Information Sharing is Critical: Standards, Privacy Protection and CyberSecurity