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„Secret fluids” - biological fluids „Secret fluids” - biological fluids overview, modelling, problems Anna Kucaba-Piętal Rzeszów University of Technology,

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Presentation on theme: "„Secret fluids” - biological fluids „Secret fluids” - biological fluids overview, modelling, problems Anna Kucaba-Piętal Rzeszów University of Technology,"— Presentation transcript:

1 „Secret fluids” - biological fluids „Secret fluids” - biological fluids overview, modelling, problems Anna Kucaba-Piętal Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland School of Engineering, University of Liverpool Liverpool L69 3GH, UK, May 13th 2013 1

2 Overview of biological fluids, contents, modelling, problem formulation Fundamental biofluid rheology Blood rheological parameters of blood factors which effect on blood viscosity diaseses Synovial fluid rheological parameters of s.f factors which effect on s. f. viscosity diaseses Plasma and lymph as Newtonian fluid Conclusion Contents 2

3 Questions: What influences the change of rheological properties of biological fluids and what are the consequences? Why is it important to predict rheological parameters of biofluid? Answers: Due to the formulation bioflow equations To maintain nonbiological fluids that has rheological properties comparble to real biofluid To use it in diagnostics of clinical disorders Aim of Lectures 3

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5 Total amount of fluid in the human body is approximately 70% of body weight Body fluid has been divided into two compartments – – Intracellular fluid (ICF) Inside the cells 55% of total body water – Extracellular fluid Outside the cells 45% of total body water Body fluids 5

6 Extracellular fluid includes: Interstitial fluid » Present between the cells » Approximately 80% of ECF Plasma » Present in blood » Approximately 20% of ECF Also includes » Lymph » synovial fluid » aqueous humor » cerebrospinal fluid » vitreous body » endolymph » perilymph » pleural, pericardial and peritoneal fluids Body fluid compartments 6

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9 Plasma membrane Separates ICF from surrounding interstitial fluid Blood vessel wall Separate interstitial fluid from plasma Barriers separate ICF, interstitial fluid and plasma 9

10 Organic substances  Glucose  Amino acids  Fatty acids  Hormones  Enzymes Inorganic substances  Sodium  Potassium  Calcium  Magnesium  Chloride  Phophate  Sulphate Composition of body fluids 10

11 Most abundant cation - Na+, – muscle contraction – Impulse transmission – fluid and electrolyte balance Most abundant anion - Cl- – Regulates osmotic pressure – Forms HCl in gastric acid Most abundant cation - K + – Resting membrane potential – Action potentials – Maintains intracellular volume – Regulation of pH Anion are proteins and phosphates (HPO 4 2- ) Na+ /K+ pumps play major role in keeping K+ high inside cells and Na+ high outside cell Difference 11

12 In health the volume and composition of various body fluid compartments are maintained within physiological limits even in face of wide variations in intake of water and solutes. Control of body fluid volume (Homeostasis) 12

13 Amniotic fluid Aqueous humour and vitreous humour Bile Blood Breast milk Cerebrospinal fluid Cerumen (earwax) Chyle Chyme Endolymph and perilymph Feces - see diarrhea Female ejaculate Gastric acid Gastric juice Lymph Mucus (including nasal drainage and phlegm) Pericardial fluid Peritoneal fluid Pleural fluid Pus Rheum Saliva Sebum (skin oil) Semen Sputum Sweat Synovial fluid Tears Vaginal secretion Vomit Urine Body fluids 13

14 Lymph Milk Cerebrospinal fluid Amniotic fluid Aqueous humor Sweat Tears Specialized fluids of the body 14

15 Microscopic level Transport Mechanisms Membrane Transport Intracellular membrane transport ICF-ECF Exchange ISF-Plasma Exchange Capillary Pressures Macroscopic level Blood Flow CFD simulation  synovial fluid Transport problems 15

16 Wstawie pozniej Navier-Stokes equations 16

17 The viscosity and elasticity determine the pressure required to produce bioflows. Viscosity is an assessment of the rate of energy dissipation Elasticity is an assessment of the elastic storage of energy How is relations between shear stress and deformation? Rheological parameters, a constitutive equation 17

18 Body fluid percentages 18

19 Rheology (of Liquids) Physics Chemistry Mechanics of Continuum Technology/ Engineering Rheology as an interdisciplinary science 19

20 Viscosity = F(S,T,p,s,t, V) S- physico-chemical properties of substances, T-temperature, p- pressure, s-velocity of shear, t- time, V-voltage Viscosity 20

21 21 NEWTONIAN FLUID NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID F yu(y)  f . Models 21

22  Blood is a concentrated suspension of Red Blood Cells; outside the range of dilute suspension  Particles change their shape in response to the fluid forces  The nature of RBC membrane and its deformation stress/strain is much less established  RBC tends to form agregates known as rouleaux Blood 22

23 Constituents of Blood% Plasma proteins3.2 – 4.4 Red blood cells40 – 54 White blood cells0.03 - 0.05 Water42 –58 Electrolytes< 0.001 Organic nutrients< 0.001 Organic wastes< 0.001 Platelets~ 0.1 Blood - components 23

24 TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES RBCs PLATELETS Blood – formed elements 24

25 RANGE Density (g/cm 3 )1.050-1.064 Viscosity (cP)2.18-3.59 pH7.35-7.45 Factors affecting the blood rheology: a) hematocrit b) deformation and agregation of red blood cells c) biochemical properties of plasma d) temperature e) the geometry and flow parameters Physical properties of blood PROPERTY 25

26 Plasma is the straw-colored liquid in which the blood cells are suspended. Composition of blood plasma: ComponentPercent Water~92 Proteins6–8 Salts0.8 Lipids0.6 Glucose (blood sugar)0.1 Plasma 26

27 Water : 90% Solids: 10% organic constituents: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, enzymes, Ketone bodies, and other organic compounds. Inorganic compounds: Na, K Ca,Cl,and CO2. Plasma 27

28 Comparison of Newtonian plasma and blood viscosity 28

29 Clear and colorless fluid 96% water and 4% solids Solids – – Proteins 2-6% of solids albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, prothrombin, clotting factors, antibodies, enzymes – Lipids 5-15% Chylomicrons Lipoproteins – Carbohydrates Glucose mainly – NPN Urea and creatinine – Electrolytes Sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonates Lymph 29

30 Return protein from tissue spaces into blood Redistribution of fluid Removal of bacteria, toxins and other foreign bodies from tissues Maintain structural and functional integrity of tissue Route for intestinal fat absorption Transport lymphocytes Functions of lymph 30

31 What is it? It is a fluid that resembles plasma but with a much lower concentration of suspended proteins Functions?  Transports hormones, nutrients, and waste products from peripheral tissues to the general circulation  Returns fluid and solute from peripheral tissues to the blood  Maintains blood volume and eliminates local variations in the composition of the interstitial fluid Lymphatic fluid 31

32 Newtonian fluid: constant viscosity at all shear rates at a constant pressure and temperature. Relationship between shear stress and shear rate is linear. Newtonian behavior 32

33 Synovial fluid 33

34 Contentsvalue Dry matter 0,13  3,5 Density(20 o C) 1,0081  1,015 pH 7,2  7,4 viscosity (20 o C) water, g/kg 960  988 hyaluronic acid (HA ) 2-3% The content of dry matter g/kg 12  40 Albumins, globulins g/l Phospholipids, glycoprotein's 10,7  21,3 10,2 0,5 Mucyns, g/l 0,68  1,35 Glucoses, g/l jak w surowicy krwi Urynial Acid, mg/l 73,4 Synovial fluid 34

35 Minimise the friction between during bones movement or weight bearing Provides nutrition for cartilage. 0.15-3.5ml Functions 35

36 Sodium Hyaluronate, Hyaluronan Made up of repeating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine subunitsMade up of repeating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine subunits High molecular weight: 0.2 to 10 million DaltonHigh molecular weight: 0.2 to 10 million Dalton Major component of synovial fluidMajor component of synovial fluid Exhibits viscoelastic propertiesExhibits viscoelastic properties Main Factors affecting the rheological properties: a) Hyaluronic Acid concentation c) Molecular weigh of Hyaluronic Acid d) Temperature Synovial fluid 36

37 Pathophysiological significance of biofluid rheology Develop an understanding of how the micro- and nano- structure of blood influences its rheology Explore to use of rheological parameters in diagnostics and menagement of clinical disorders and inoptimisation of blood processing Explore new methods of measurement suited for clinical application Maintain new type apparatus for such measurements Perspectives 37

38 Thank you 38

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