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Making Sense of Numbers in the NICU

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Presentation on theme: "Making Sense of Numbers in the NICU"— Presentation transcript:

1 Making Sense of Numbers in the NICU
Pediatrics Workshop National SOMA Spring Convention Washington, D.C. March 10, 2012 Lisa Marie Piwoszkin, OMS IV National SOMA VP & Speaker CCOM

2 Objectives Introduce the basics of the newborn resuscitation period
Practice calculations for TPN orders Learn how to manage basic ventilator settings Huge topics, I just want to give you the basics so you’ll have a base knowledge on rotations. 1,2,3,4 years? A lot will carry over! But we will focus on the newborn….

3 WHY do you care? Complex concepts you may be expected to know
Not taught this in class Everyone required to do a pediatric rotation!

4 WHAT is the Newborn Resuscitation?
Special skill set used in the period immediately after delivery to assist the newborn transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life

5 Baby’s 1st Breath

6 WHERE does the Newborn Resuscitation take place?
Delivery Room Operating Room

7 WHO is present during the Newborn Resuscitation?
OB crew OB/Neonatal nurse(s) Neonatologist/Pediatrician Resident(s) Medical Student(s)- YOU! Nurses designated to baby NRP= AAP + AHA

8 WHAT skills are involved in the Newborn Resuscitation?
Thermoregulation (37˚C) Airway Management Stimulation Cardiovascular Support Medications Thermoregulation (37˚C)- warmer, blankets, plastic wrap Airway Management- Goal- CRY, Suction, Oxygen, Positive Pressure Ventilation, Intubation Stimulation- bulb suction, drying Cardiovascular Support- compressions if less than 60bpm after 30 sec of PPV Medications- epi, NS

9 HOW can YOU prepare? Wear gloves and mask Be aware of surroundings
Make sure the appropriate help is in the room Make sure suction kit, intubation kits, and resuscitation medications are in the room and readily available Make sure oxygen is flowing, bag valve mask working properly and at appropriate pressure Make sure blankets are laid out and warmer is set to 37˚C Make sure timer is reset on warmer


11 HOW can YOU participate?
“Catch the Baby!” Start the timer… CONSTANTLY ASSESS THE BABY Bulb suction Dry with blankets Check for pulse Listen to lungs Watch the timer… Quick exam Put on the cap Record APGAR scores Secure side rails Congratulate the parents! Bulb- mouth then nose Pulse 60 vs 100

12 APGAR Scores Assessment of newborn viability Pneumonic & Eponym
@ 1 min, 5 min, 10 min Pneumonic & Eponym Each letter represents a sign evaluated in the score Developed by Virginia Apgar, MD, leader in anesthesiology

13 APGAR Scores

14 Case 1 Newborn male Full term NSVD Immediate loud cry
Coughs after bulb suction Moves all four extremities Face and trunk pink, hands and feet dusky HR 120

15 Case 1 9/10 1 pt loss for color Most NORMAL newborns only ever achieve 9/10

16 Case 2 27 5/7 weeks premature female Born to G1P1 26 y/o female
PPROM, NSVD Newborn required vigorous resuscitation APGARs: and 5 min Birth weight:1 kg Transported to NICU, currently stable, intubated, UVC placed

17 Case 2 Hungry babies are not happy babies!
← 2 arteries, 1 vein How are we going to feed her? Options: oral- no, MEF- maybe, TPN

18 Parenteral Nutrition Intravenous nutritional support
Can be started as soon as venous access obtained

19 Parenteral Nutrition TERMINOLOGY TPN- Total Parenteral Nutrition
ALL IV, patient NPO PPN- Partial Parenteral Nutrition SOME IV, patient supplementing with PO

20 WHAT is in TPN? Macronutrients „ Micronutrients
‰ Carbohydrate (dextrose) ‰ Protein (amino acids) ‰ Fat (fat emulsion) „ Micronutrients ‰ Vitamins & Minerals ‰ Electrolytes ‰ Trace elements „ Miscellaneous constituents ‰ Heparin protects line integrity ‰ Carnitine aids fat metabolism ‰ Famotidine protects stomach mucosa Vitamins – 4 fat soluble and 9 water soluble vitamins ‰ Macrominerals – calcium, phosphorus and magnesium ‰ Electrolytes – sodium, potassium, chloride ‰ Trace elements – most commonly zinc, copper, chromium and manganese; less commonly selenium and iron; rarely molybdenum and iodine

21 HOW to order TPN?

22 Filling out the TPN Form…
Identifying information Patient Sticker (be careful with multiples!) Date Day # TPN Current GA (weeks days/7)

23 Filling out the TPN Form…
Daily Information Dosing weight (kg) (A) Line Access Central- UVC, PICC, CVL Peripheral- PIV Heparin? Labs BMP every 1-2 days LFTs and TG at least every week

24 Total Daily Fluid TPN Dextrose Amino Acids Electrolytes Vitamins
Trace Elements FAT Emulsion Fat OTHER Medications Infusions Oral Feeds

25 Calculations Total Fluid (TF) (B)
150ml/kg/day Total Daily Fluid Intake (B) ml/kg/day x (A) kg = (C) ml/day 150 ml/kg/day x 1 kg = 150 ml/day No Non-TPN Infusions or Enteral Rx (D) Parenteral Feeding Allowance (C) ml - (D) ml = (E) ml 150 ml – 0 ml = 150 ml TF- every and all fluid received in 24 hrs (TPN, oral, meds, other infusions, etc.)

26 Calculations Fat Emulsion (G) Separate bag! Start with 1 gm/kg
Increase by 0.5 gm/kg/day, max 3 gm/kg 1 gm fat dispensed in 5 ml Fat Emulsion #gm/kg x (A) kg = (F) gm x 5 ml/gm = (G) ml 1 gm/kg x 1 kg = 1gm x 5 ml/gm = 5 ml

27 X Total Daily Fluid Separate bag! TPN Dextrose Amino Acids
Electrolytes Vitamins Trace Elements FAT Emulsion Fat X OTHER Medications Infusions Oral Feeds

28 TPN Volume/24 hours (E) ml - (G) ml = (H) ml
Calculations TPN Volume over 24 hours (H) Parenteral feeding allowance – intralipid volume TPN Volume/24 hours (E) ml - (G) ml = (H) ml 150 ml - 5 ml = 145 ml

29 Calculations Fat Infusion Rate TPN Infusion Rate (G) / 24 hours
5 ml / 24 hours = 0.2 ml/hr TPN Infusion Rate (H) / 24 hours 145 ml / 24 hours = 6 ml/hr

30 X Total Daily Fluid Separate bag! TPN Dextrose Amino Acids
Electrolytes Vitamins Trace Elements FAT Emulsion Fat X OTHER Medications Infusions Oral Feeds

31 7 mg/kg/day = (I) % /100 x 145 ml /1.44 / 1 kg
Calculations Dextrose Concentration (I) Glucose Infusion Rate (R) Initiate at 6-8 mg/kg/min Increase by 1 mg/kg/day, max 13 mg/kg/min (R) = (I) /100 x (H) /1.44 / (A) Solve for (I) 7 mg/kg/day = (I) % /100 x 145 ml /1.44 / 1 kg (I) = 7 %

32 Your New Best Friends!

33 Calculations Amino Acids (J) 3 gm/kg x (A) kg = (J) gm
Initiate at 3 gm/kg 3 gm/kg x (A) kg = (J) gm 3 gm/kg x 1 kg = 3 gm

34 Calculations Electrolytes Multivitamin Trace Elements
None included in TPN until DOL #3 Allow for stabilization Adjust day to day Multivitamin Check Daily Trace Elements

35 X Calculations Enteral Calories (P) Parenteral (TPN) Calories (Q)
Fat: (F) x 10 = (K) Dextrose: (I) / 100 x (H) x 3.4 = (L) Protein: (J) x 4 = (M) TPN Kcal/day: (K) + (L) + (M) = (N) TPN Kcal/kg/day: (N) / (A) = (Q) Total Calories Total Kcal/kg/day: (Q) + (P)

36 How will your TPN order change?
Keep track of days and age Update weight daily Know line access Know oral volumes or infusions Increase fats and dextrose Adjust fats, dextrose, amino acids, electrolytes*, and additives as needed based on labs Electrolytes… arbitrary Chloride and acetone (back) Cholestasis protocol

37 Case 3 29 0/7 weeks premature male
Meconium aspiration, absent cry, required intubation Blood Gas: pH 7.21 PaCO2 50 PaO2 56 HCO3 20 Base Deficit -4 What Acid-Base imbalance does he have?

38 Case 3 Respiratory acidosis How can we help reduce his acidosis?

39 Affected by Ventilation or Oxygenation?
pH PaCO2 PaO2 HCO3 Base Deficit

40 Affected by Ventilation or Oxygenation?
pH PaCO2 PaO2 HCO3 Base Deficit Ventilation Oxygenation Neither

41 Ventilator Settings Same indications as adults Modes
AC- Assist Control SIMV- Synchronous Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation PS- Pressure Support CPAP- Continuous Positive Airway Pressure BiPAP- Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure Assist Control (AC)– respiratory rate (16) is guaranteed at a set tidal volume (500) Patient triggered breath will deliver the same volume as a ventilator triggered breath Ventilator will always 16, but pt can breath above vent- SIMV may be indicated or lower rate Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (SIMV) – delivers a guaranteed minimum respiratory rate (12-14) at a set tidal volume Patient may generate additional breaths Ventilator will synchronize patient and machine generated breaths Patient generated breaths – the delivered volume is only what the patient can generate – work of breathing is increased Seeing what your pt can do on their own (strength & rate) Pressure support is a method of assisting spontaneous breathing in a ventilated patient. It can be used as a partial or full support mode(1-3). The patient controls all parts of the breath except the pressure limit. The patient triggers the ventilator – the ventilator delivers a flow up to a preset pressure limi CPAP – continuous positive airway pressure Major use is in non-intubated patients Pressure maintained above atmospheric pressure – eliminates patient work in generating negative airway pressure Delivered through tightly fitted face masks with adjustable pressurized valves connected to a respirator BiPAP – bi-level positive airway pressure Has settings for both inspiratory positive pressure and expiratory positive pressure

42 Ventilator Settings Rate Tidal Volume FiO2 PEEP

43 Remember… pH Ventilation PaCO2 Ventilation PaO2 Oxygenation
HCO3 Neither Base Deficit Neither

44 Affects Ventilation or Oxygenation?
Rate Tidal Volume FiO2 PEEP Tidal volume is the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration when extra effort is not applied. FiO2- percent oxygen Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is the pressure in the lungs (alveolar pressure) above atmospheric pressure (the pressure outside of the body) that exists at the end of expiration.

45 Affects Ventilation or Oxygenation?
Rate Tidal Volume FiO2 PEEP Ventilation Oxygenation

46 Ventilation Oxygenation Rate Tidal Volume To ↑ pH ↑ To ↓ pH ↓
To ↑ PaCO2 To ↓ PaCO2 Oxygenation FiO2 PEEP To ↑ PaO2 To ↓ PaO2

47 Just remember… What’s abnormal? What’s the problem?
What can you change? pH or PaCO2 Ventilation Rate or Tidal Volume PaO2 Oxygenation FiO2 or PEEP

48 Take Home Points

49 Be an active participant in the newborn resuscitation!

50 TPN looks hard, but doesn’t have to be.

51 Know why your blood gasses are abnormal, and fix them!

52 Feel smarter than a 5th grader… and some interns.

53 Have Fun on Peds & Share the wealth!

54 Referneces Emedicine: Neonatal Resuscitation
Neonatology: Newborn and Acid Base Balance.

55 Contact Information Lisa Marie Piwoszkin OMS IV, CCOM

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