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S ODIUM S ULFUR B ATTERIES Elisa Zaleski M AT 286G Final May 26, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "S ODIUM S ULFUR B ATTERIES Elisa Zaleski M AT 286G Final May 26, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 S ODIUM S ULFUR B ATTERIES Elisa Zaleski M AT 286G Final May 26, 2010

2 B ATTERY B ASICS A chemical reaction produces electrons – Electrons travel from the (-) to the (+) electrode – Ions travel through the electrolyte “Anode” = from the Greek for “way up” – Current flows through the anode into the device Discharging? Negative electrode Charging? Positive electrode “Cathode” = from the Greek for “way down” – Current flows through the cathode out of the device Discharging? Positive electrode Charging? Negative electrode

3 C URRENT : N AMING THE A NODE AND C ATHODE N E S W Current Electrolytic Cell (Recharging) Anode (Positive Electrode) “Way Up” Cathode (Negative Electrode) “Way Down” Electrolyte

4 N A S: T HE B ASICS Liquid sodium and liquid sulfur as the negative and positive electrodes Solid ceramic as the Na + conducting electrolyte – β -alumina – NaSICON (Na Super Ionic CONductor) Operating temperature ≅ 300 o C (to maintain the electrodes in the liquid state) Potential Applications: – Electric vehicles Ford Ecostar 1991 – Energy storage

5 N A S: T HE B ASICS Key Features: – High-energy density (~367Wh/l) with a reduction in space required for the battery – EMF ~ 2V – No self-discharge – High cycle life 40,000+ cycles at 20% depth of discharge (DOD) 4,500 cycles to 90% DOD 2,500 cycles to 100% DOD – Sodium and sulfur are relatively abundant

6 N A S: T HE C ONSTRUCTION Solid electrolyte separates the sodium inner core from the sulfur annulus Protective Fe-75Cr coating is plasma sprayed on the inner wall to avoid corrosion Configured in series and parallel Image courtesy of NASA Glenn Research Center

7 N A S: T HE C HEMISTRY Discharge Na (negative electrode) sends electrons through the circuit Na + pass through the electrolyte Na + reacts with S to form sodium polysulfides at the positive electrode 2Na + xS  Na 2 S x Charge Sodium polysulfides decompose Na + passes back through the electrolyte

8 D ISCHARGE C YCLE Oshima, Kajita, and Okuno, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 1 [3] (2004)

9 C HARGE C YCLE Oshima, Kajita, and Okuno, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 1 [3] (2004)

10 P OLYSULFIDE VERSUS V OLTAGE The polysulfide formed changes with state-of-charge – At ~Na 2 S 2 it is at full discharge Oshima, Kajita, and Okuno, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 1 [3] (2004)

11 T RANSPORTING N A + : β - ALUMINA Na 2 O(5-11)Al 2 O 3 – NaAl 11 O 17 – Non-stoichiometric compound of Na 2 O and Al 2 O 3 that includes β and β ” β ” = Na 2 O(5-7)Al 2 O 3 – MgO added to increase the stability at the high sintering temperatures ‘Spinel’ layers separated by conduction planes Oshima, Kajita, and Okuno, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 1 [3] (2004)

12 T RANSPORTING N A + : N A SICON Superior Na + conductivity compared to β -alumina Na 1+x Si x Zr 2 P 3-x O 12 (0 { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3453040/12/slides/slide_11.jpg", "name": "T RANSPORTING N A + : N A SICON Superior Na + conductivity compared to β -alumina Na 1+x Si x Zr 2 P 3-x O 12 (0

13 N A SICON VS β- ALUMINA Housecroft and Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry, 3 rd Edition 2008

14 N A S B ATTERIES : T AKING US OFF THE GRID ?

15 B ATTERIES : S TORING ENERGY

16 N A S B ATTERIES : T AKING US OFF THE GRID ? Ceramatec is developing a low temperature (<100 o C) solid NaS battery using a NaSICON electrolyte designed for home energy storage – Prototype due out 2011 Potential Specs – 20kWh – Daily charge/discharge cycles over 10 years – $2000 per refrigerator sized unit $100/kWh or <$0.03/kWh over the battery’s lifetime Grid storage market expected to increase from $365 million today to ~$2.5 billion by 2015


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