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WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE CHAPTER 21.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE CHAPTER 21."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER, ELECTROLYTE AND ACID/BASE BALANCE CHAPTER 21

2 BALANCE=? HOMEOSTASIS SO WATER GAINED=? HOW DOES WATER BALANCE GO ALONG WITH ELECTROLYTE BALANCE?

3 HEATSTROKE? WHO’S MORE SUSCEPTIBLE AND WHY?

4 WHY IS WATER IMPORTANT?

5

6 DISTRIBUTION OF BODY FLUIDS COMPARTMENTS ARE FEMALES OR MALES HIGHER? WHY? TYPES OF COMPARTMENTS?

7 INTRACELLULAR? MOST/63%

8 EXTRACELLULAR? INTERSTITIAL FLUID, PLASMA, LYMPH, TRANSCELLULAR 37%

9 TRANSCELLULAR? CSF, AQUEOUS AND VITREOUS HUMOR,SYNOVIAL FLUID, SEROUS FLUID, EXOCRINE SECRETIONS

10 INTRA: HIGH: ? K, PO 4,Mg, SO 4, PROTEINS (MORE THAN PLASMA) LOW: Na, Cl, BICARBONATE, SO WHAT WOULD EXTRACELLULAR FLUID (INTERSTITIAL) BE?

11 SO WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF WE LOST WATER FROM THE CELLS? WORKSHEET WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF WE LOST WATER FROM THE EXTRACELLLULAR FLUID?

12 MOVEMENT OF FLUIDS WHAT 2 FORCES CONTROL MOVEMENT ?(THINK NEPHRON) HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE? COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE? WHERE HAVE WE SEEN IT ALREADY ?

13 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE USUALLY EQUAL MOST WATER MOVEMENT DUE TO OSMOTIC PRESSURE DUE TO IMPERMEABLE SOLUTES EX: IF Na DECREASES OUTSIDE CAUSES H 2 O TO ? ENTER CELL

14 CAPILLARY BED DIFFUSION

15 BODY FLUID COMPOSITION COMPARISON EXTRA: HIGH: Na, Cl, Ca, BICARBONATE, LOW: K, Mg, PO 4, SO 4 BLOOD PLASMA: MORE PROTEIN WHY?

16 WATER BALANCE HOMEOSTASIS IN = OUT

17

18 REGULATION OF INTAKE WHEN DO YOU DRINK? THIRST CENTER: HYPOTHALAMUS STEPS: H 2 O DECREASES OSMOTIC PRESSURE __________________ _____________________ FLUIDS INCREASE ________RECEPTORS STIMULATED IN THIRST CENTER FEEL __________________ DRY MOUTH BECAUSE? WHEN IS THE REFLEX STIMULATED? WHAT INHIBITS THIRST REFLEX? WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF IT WASN’T INHIBITED QUICKLY?

19 WATER OUTPUT BY? URINE, FEECES, SWEAT (SENSIBLE PERSPIRATION), EVAPORATION FROM SKIN (INSENSIBLE PERSPIRATION), BREATHING H 2 O VAPOR IF NOT ENOUGH WAS INGESTED WHICH FORM OF OUTPUT IS REDUCED?

20 REGULATION OF OUTPUT MAIN MECHANISM? (THNK KIDNEY) ADH FROM ? CAUSES ? TO BECOME PERMEABLE TO H 2 O TOO MUCH WATER? HOW DO DIURETICS WORK? ALCOHOL, CAFFEINE

21

22 ELECTROLYTE BALANCE ? MOST IMPORTANT: Na,K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO 4, PO 4, H+, BICARBONATE, BY?

23 FORMATION OF ELECTROLYTES WATER IS ? THIS CAUSES IONICALLY BONDED MOLECULES TO ? = ELECTROLYTES OSMORALITY = WHAT IS AN OSMOLE? WHY DOES SALT HAVE 2 OSMOLES?

24 ELECTROLYTE OUTPUT BY? SWEAT, FEECES, MOSTLY KIDNEY

25 REGULATION OF ELECTROLYTE OUTPUT CATIONS IMPORTANT FOR? MOST ABUNDANT CATION: EXTRACELLULAR? CONTROLLED BY? ALDOSTERONE, KIDNEYS ALDOSTERONE ALSO DECREASES POTASSIUM LOW CALCIUM ? PTH STIMULATES OSTEOCLASTS REABSORPTION OF CALCIUM

26 ANIONS GENERALLY MOVE WITH THE CATIONS ALSO ACTIVE TRANSPORT SOMEWHAT

27 HYDROGEN BASE BALANCE ACIDS = ? BASES = ? CHANGES AFFECT RATE OF ENZYME ACTIVITY, CHANGE DISTRIBUTION OF IONS, MODIFY HORMONE ACTION

28 INTRACELLLULAR: pH: Normal: – 7.45

29 SOURCES OF H+ MOSTLY METABOLISM BUT SOME ABSORBED BY DIGESTION METABOLISM: AEROBIC RESPIRATION OF GLUCOSE CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 (?) H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3 -

30 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION OF GLUCOSE FORMS? INCOMPLETE OXIDATION OF FATTY ACIDS PRODUCES ACIDIC KETONE BODIES OXIDATION OF AMINO ACIDS WITH SULFUR FORMS? HYDROLYSIS OF PHOSPHOPROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS PHOSPHORIC ACID

31 ACIDS STRONG VS. WEAK ? HCL RELEASES MORE H + THAN H 2 CO 3

32 BASES RELEASE ? STRONG VS. WEAK

33 METABOLISM RELEASES MORE ? IS RELEASED BY? ACID-BASE BUFFER SYSTEMS CO 2 EXCRETION RENAL EXCRETION OF ?

34 A BUFFER IS ? WE HAVE A FEW BUT 3 MAIN SYSTEMS

35 BICARBONATE BUFFER SYSTEM FOUND IN ? ACIDIC SOLUTION: H + + HCO 3  H 2 CO 3 ALKALINE SOLUTION: H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3

36 WHAT HAPPENS IN TISSUES NEAR CELLS? HIGH CO 2 ? WHAT HAPPENS CLOSE TO LUNGS? SOME INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS ACT AS BUFFERS ALSO

37 SUMMARY ACCEPT HYDROGEN IONS WHEN FLUID IS BECOMING MORE _________ GIVE UP HYDROGEN IONS WHEN FLUID IS BECOMING MORE __________ CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS CAN ONLY HELP FOR A SHORT TIME, MUST ________________

38 RESPIRATORY EXCRETION OF CO 2


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