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Household Batteries Varun Ravishanker. Laws and Regulations Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act passed by Congress in 1996 Mercury-Containing.

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Presentation on theme: "Household Batteries Varun Ravishanker. Laws and Regulations Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act passed by Congress in 1996 Mercury-Containing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Household Batteries Varun Ravishanker

2 Laws and Regulations Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act passed by Congress in 1996 Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act passed by Congress in 1996 created strict regulations for NiCd and some lead- acid batteries for ease of recycling created strict regulations for NiCd and some lead- acid batteries for ease of recycling Easily removable Easily removable Chemistry included on label Chemistry included on label Uniform storage and collection Uniform storage and collection Decrease (or end) use of mercury based batteries Decrease (or end) use of mercury based batteries

3 Laws and Regulations Recycling of Mercuric Oxide and NiCd batteries is mandatory in Connecticut by the MWS (Municipal Waste Service) Recycling laws Recycling of Mercuric Oxide and NiCd batteries is mandatory in Connecticut by the MWS (Municipal Waste Service) Recycling laws Connecticut legislation passed similar laws to Minnesota, with regulation of mercury levels of batteries to under.025 percent, and have appliances allow for easy battery removal in 1992 and 1993 Connecticut legislation passed similar laws to Minnesota, with regulation of mercury levels of batteries to under.025 percent, and have appliances allow for easy battery removal in 1992 and 1993

4 Use of Household Batteries Non rechargeable batteries uses Non rechargeable batteries uses Alkaline : Cassettes players, radios, appliances Alkaline : Cassettes players, radios, appliances Carbon-zinc: Flashlights, toys, appliances Carbon-zinc: Flashlights, toys, appliances Lithium: Cameras, calculators, watches, computers Lithium: Cameras, calculators, watches, computers Mercury : Hearing aids, pacemakers, cameras, calculators, watches Mercury : Hearing aids, pacemakers, cameras, calculators, watches Silver: Hearing aids, watches, cameras, calculators Silver: Hearing aids, watches, cameras, calculators Zinc: Hearing aids, pagers Zinc: Hearing aids, pagers Rechargeable batteries uses Rechargeable batteries uses Nickel-cadmium: Cameras, rechargeable appliances such as portable power tools, hand held vacuums Nickel-cadmium: Cameras, rechargeable appliances such as portable power tools, hand held vacuums Small sealed lead-acid: Camcorders, computers, portable radios and tape players, cellular phones, lawn mower starters Small sealed lead-acid: Camcorders, computers, portable radios and tape players, cellular phones, lawn mower starters (NYS Department of Environmental Conservation)

5 Manufacturing All batteries are created using different oxides at the anode and cathode ends, with an electrolyte solution in between. All batteries are created using different oxides at the anode and cathode ends, with an electrolyte solution in between. A general battery will have a container which holds the electrolyte solution along with certain chemicals (depending on the type of battery) which is then placed between anode and cathode components which cannot come in contact. The way these pieces are manufactured differs based on the type of battery, but this is the general composition of a battery. A general battery will have a container which holds the electrolyte solution along with certain chemicals (depending on the type of battery) which is then placed between anode and cathode components which cannot come in contact. The way these pieces are manufactured differs based on the type of battery, but this is the general composition of a battery.

6 Manufacturing  The alkaline cathode is a mixture of manganese dioxide, graphite and an electrolyte. The mixture is granulated, aged, and then compacted into a pressed tablet assembly. The mixture is granulated, aged, and then compacted into a pressed tablet assembly. Next, these tablets are inserted into a steel can. Next, these tablets are inserted into a steel can. Insert a paper separator, which is soaked with an electrolyte that promotes ionic, or electrolyte, conductivity once the battery is in use. Insert a paper separator, which is soaked with an electrolyte that promotes ionic, or electrolyte, conductivity once the battery is in use. Insert the anode. In alkaline batteries, the anode is actually a gel made up of mostly zinc powder and several other materials. This gel is inserted into the steel can against the separator paper. Insert the anode. In alkaline batteries, the anode is actually a gel made up of mostly zinc powder and several other materials. This gel is inserted into the steel can against the separator paper. A seal must be placed on the battery to help shelf and product life The seal is made up of a brass nail, a plastic gasket, a steel washer and a metal end cap. The four items are pre assembled and inserted into the middle of the steel can, up against the indentation which was formed earlier. A top is welded to the other end of the can to provide the positive polarity safety feature. The batteries are then stored, given a second voltage test, and a decorative outer label is applied. (Rayovac Battery Wizard)

7 Manufacturing Lead-acid battery manufacturing leads to sulfate ion and sulfuric acid waste production as well as airborne lead contaminants Lead-acid battery manufacturing leads to sulfate ion and sulfuric acid waste production as well as airborne lead contaminants Waste water has been found containing Zinc from battery manufacturing Waste water has been found containing Zinc from battery manufacturing Assembly can also lead to particulate matter, Manganese, and trace amounts of Mercury in the air Assembly can also lead to particulate matter, Manganese, and trace amounts of Mercury in the air

8 Hazardous side effects Through the manufacturing process, harmful chemicals listed before released in wastewater and as emissions Through the manufacturing process, harmful chemicals listed before released in wastewater and as emissions Batteries sent to incinerators can pollute the water systems from metals after burning Batteries sent to incinerators can pollute the water systems from metals after burning Batteries sent to landfills can eventually have metals leach into the ground and into groundwater Batteries sent to landfills can eventually have metals leach into the ground and into groundwater Dry cell batteries contribute about 88 percent of the total mercury and 50 percent of the cadmium in the municipal solid waste stream (Environmental Health and Safety Online) Dry cell batteries contribute about 88 percent of the total mercury and 50 percent of the cadmium in the municipal solid waste stream (Environmental Health and Safety Online)

9 Geographic locations and organisms impacted All waterways have potential to be affected by both the wrong disposal and manufacturing of batteries All waterways have potential to be affected by both the wrong disposal and manufacturing of batteries Air pollution caused by both manufacturing and wrong disposal, compound problems that affect areas like acid rain Air pollution caused by both manufacturing and wrong disposal, compound problems that affect areas like acid rain Disposal in landfills of batteries can leach materials into soil and damage both the soil and groundwater under the landfill Disposal in landfills of batteries can leach materials into soil and damage both the soil and groundwater under the landfill Therefore a fairly global issue wherever in the world there is heavy manufacturing of batteries or poor disposal of the batteries Therefore a fairly global issue wherever in the world there is heavy manufacturing of batteries or poor disposal of the batteries Human health affected by metal deposits in water such as Mercury Human health affected by metal deposits in water such as Mercury High levels of Cadmium exposure has been linked to lung cancer and other health effects for humans High levels of Cadmium exposure has been linked to lung cancer and other health effects for humans

10 Bibliography "Battery Recycling and Disposal Guide for Households." Environment, Health and Safety Online. 2 Oct "Household Battery Fact Sheet." New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. 2 Oct "How a Battery is Made." Rayovac. 1 Oct "Managing Household Batteries." Department of Environmental Protection.. "Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act (Battery Act) Enforcement." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2 Oct


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