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Solutions I Test Review. 1. Identify solution/solvent MixtureSoluteSolvent Gatorade Gatorade powderWater club soda Carbon dioxideWater air oxygennitrogen.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions I Test Review. 1. Identify solution/solvent MixtureSoluteSolvent Gatorade Gatorade powderWater club soda Carbon dioxideWater air oxygennitrogen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions I Test Review

2 1. Identify solution/solvent MixtureSoluteSolvent Gatorade Gatorade powderWater club soda Carbon dioxideWater air oxygennitrogen gold Other metalsGold vinegar (5% acetic acid) Acetic acidwater

3 2. Solutions, suspensions, and colloids a.sand mixed with water b.brass c. cloud d. air e. milk f. a mixture that quickly settles into a watery liquid and an oily liquid g. a mixture that is transparent, does not scatter light h. mayonnaise suspension Solution (solid solution/alloy) colloid Solution (gas solution) colloid suspension colloid

4 3. Describe the dissolving of calcium iodide on a molecular level. (Explain the orientation of the water molecules around the calcium ions and the iodide ions.) I- Ca+ O HH

5 4. The grams of solute that will dissolve in 100 grams of water expresses ________ solubility

6 5. List 3 actions to increase the rate a solute will dissolve in a solvent. 1. stir 2. crush 3. increase/decrease temperature (exothermic/endothermic)

7 6. Place the following in order of increasing rate of dissolving: a. granulated sugar, cold tea, stirred b. sugar cube, hot tea, unstirred c. sugar cube, cold tea, unstirred d. granulated sugar, hot tea, stirred 2 3 4 1

8 7. Alcohol dissolves in water; the two liquids are ______________ miscible (or polar)

9 Like dissolves Like Polar dissolves Polar Non-polar dissolves non-polar

10 8. Which of the following will dissolve in water? a)KNO 3 b)CCl 4 c)MgCl 2 d)gasoline (C 8 H 18 ) Ionic Compound Non-Polar Ionic Compound Non-Polar

11 9. Which of the following will dissolve in cyclohexane, C 6 H 12 ? a)NaCl b)Br 2 all brinclhof elements are non-polar a)H 2 O b)KNO 3 c)benzene (C 6 H 6 ) all hydrocarbons are non-polar

12 10. Determine whether the following is describing a saturated solution, an unsaturated solution, or a supersaturated solution. a.clear solution on top of test tube, solid on bottom b.more solute will dissolve c.crystals immediately form when disturbed saturated unsaturated Super-saturated

13 11. Name 2 things I can do to get more gas to dissolve. Decrease the temperature or increase the pressure

14 12 a)I have a saturated solution of potassium chlorate dissolved in 100 mL of water at 50  C. What mass of potassium chlorate is in there? If I raise the temperature to 90  C, how much more potassium chlorate can I add and still have a saturated solution? 50g -20g = 30g KClO 3

15 Above the line = supersaturated On the line = saturated Below the line = unsaturated

16 For solubility curve problems g solute = g water 100g water grams water = mL water

17 12 b) I have a solution with 170 g of sodium nitrate dissolved in 250 mL of water at 10  C. Is this solution saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated? 68 unsaturated g solute 170 g solute = 250mL water 100g water

18 12 c) I have a saturated solution of potassium nitrate at 50  C. I slowly cool the solution to 20  C with no potassium nitrate precipitating out. What type of solution do I now have at 20  C? supersaturated

19 13)A substance that can conduct enough electricity (when dissolved in water) to make a light bulb glow brightly is a strong electrolyte. An example of this type of substance would be sodium chloride in water. A substance that can conduct enough electricity (when dissolved in water) to make a light bulb glow dimly is a weak electrolyte; an example of this type of substance is HF, acetic acid, etc. A substance that will not conduct electricity (when dissolved in water) is called a non- electrolyte and an example would be sugar in water.

20 Remember, A substance must be DISSOLVED in water to be an electrolyte Ex. NaCl by itself is not an electrolyte, NaCl in water is a strong electrolyte

21 14. Which of the following solutions will conduct electricity? Provide reasons. Both a. and c. have positive and negative charges in their solutions

22 15. Sulfuric acid ionizes a great deal in water; HCN is an acid that does not ionize much at all in water. Describe their effects on a light bulb when dissolved in water. Sulfuric acid = bright (creates more ions) HCN = no light

23 16. Which of the following solutions will have the greatest effect on the freezing point of 1 liter of water? (Assume equal solubilities in water.) a.1 mol sodium fluorideNaF  2 ions b.1 mol magnesium bromideMgBr 2  3 ions c.2 mol potassium chloride2KCl  4 ions d.1 mol aluminum chlorideAlCl 3  4 ions e.2 mol aluminum chloride 2AlCl 3  8 ions


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