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Solutions. Electrolytes Pure water does not conduct an electric current Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 215 Source of electric.

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Presentation on theme: "Solutions. Electrolytes Pure water does not conduct an electric current Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 215 Source of electric."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solutions

2 Electrolytes

3 Pure water does not conduct an electric current Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 215 Source of electric power Pure water

4 Ionic Solutions conduct a Current Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 215 Source of electric power Free ions present in water

5 Electrolytes Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. (a) Nonelectrolyte (b) Weak electrolyte (c) Strong electrolyte

6 Electrolytes Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 290 Electrolytes Electrolytes - solutions that carry an electric current NaCl(aq) Na + + Cl - HF(aq) H + + F - strong electrolyteweak electrolytenonelectrolyte

7 Structure of Sucrose Table sugar C 6 H 12 O 6 Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry  2002, page 469 CH 2 OH OH HO H H H H H H H C C C C C C C C C O O O H

8 Solvation Strong Electrolyte Non- Electrolyte solute exists as ions only - + salt - + sugar solute exists as molecules only - + acetic acid Weak Electrolyte solute exists as ions and molecules DISSOCIATIONIONIZATION View animation online.animation

9 Solvation DISSOCIATIONIONIZATION View animation online.animation The seperation of ions from a compound during solution. (Ionic Compounds) Ex. Sodium chloride, NaCl The formation of ions from solute molecules by the action of a solvent. (Covalnetly bonded molecules) Ex. acetic acid, HCH 3 COO

10 Korey Stringer Korey Stringer was a professional football player for the Minnesota Vikings. He collapsed during practice from excessive heat and died the following day.

11 Electrolyte Imbalances ElectrolyteNormal range (mmol / L) ExcessDefiency Sodium Na Hypernatremia (increased urine excretion; excess water loss) Hyponatremia (dehydration; diabetes- related low blood pH; vomiting, diarrhea) Potassium K – 5.0 Hyperkalemia (renal failure, low blood pH) Hypokalemia (gastointestinal conditions) Hydrogen carbonate HCO Hypercapina (high blood pH; hypoventilation) Hypocapnia (low blood pH; hyper- ventilation; dehydration) Chloride Cl Hyperchloremia (anemia, heart conditions, dehydration) Hypochloremia (acute infections; burns; hypoventilation)

12 Effect of Salinity on Cells Timberlake, Chemistry 7 th Edition, page 312 isotonic solution no change hypotonic solution hemolysis crenation hypertonic solution

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved. (a) Cells in dilute salt solution (b) Cells in distilled water(c) Cells in concentrated salt solution IsotonicHypotonicHypertonic

14 Don't Sweat the Small Stuff Article KeysKeys Article "Don't Sweat the Small Stuff"


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