Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Disturbances of body fluids

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Disturbances of body fluids"— Presentation transcript:

1 Disturbances of body fluids
Renata Péčová Dept. of Pathophysiology 2009

2 TOTAL BODY FLUID (TBF) water - 60 % of the weight of men
- 50 % of the weight of women - more fat and a smaller muscle mass  smaller amount of water in relation to total body weight (TBW

3 Major Compartments of Body Fluid
1.     intracellular fluid (ICF) - 40 % (2/3) TBW (in the adult) 2.     extracellular fluid (ECF) - 20 % (1/3) a. interstitial fluid (ISF) - compartment between the cells (15 %) b. intravascular fluid (IVF) in addition to the ISF and IVF, special secretions (cerebrospinal fluid, intraocular fluid, and gastrointestinal secretions) form a small proportion (1 % to 2 % of body weight) of the extracellular fluid called transcellular fluid

4 Major compartments of body fluids
TBF 60-65% of body weight; ECT:ICT=1:2; IVT:IST =1:4

5 Compartments of total body fluid
thick connective tissue bones lymph INTRACELLULAR FLUID P L A S M TRANSCELLULAR FLUID INTERSTITIAL FLUID „third space“ PERITONEAL CAVITY PLEURAL CAVITY PERICARDIAL CAVITY

6 volume of erythrocytes (2 l)
TBF 40 l . IVF (3 l) volume of erythrocytes (2 l) . . . ECF (15 l) ICF (25 l) . . . . . . . . blood volume (5 l)

7 Normal water balance (24 h)
Intake Loss Cellular metabolism 0,5 l Urine 1-2 l Normal water intake 1 l Stool 0,1 l Sweat 0,6-0,8 l Pulmonary TOTAL 2,5 l

8 Principles of normal water balance
Sumit Kumar & Tomas Berl

9 Major electrolytes and their distribution - 1
sodium (Na+) - chief cation of the ECF potassium (K+) - the chief cation of the ICF calcium (Ca++) magnesium (Mg++) chloride (Cl-) - chief anion of the ECF bicarbonate (HCO3- ) - chief anion of the ECF phosphate (HPO42--) - chief anion of the ICF sulfate(SO42-)

10 Major electrolytes and their distribution - 2
Sodium plays a major role in controlling total body fluid volume; potassium is important in controlling the volume of the cell The law of electrical neutrality states that the sum of negative charges must be equal to the sum of positive charges (measured in milliequivalents) in any particular compartment

11 Major electrolytes and their distribution - 3
Ionic composition of the ISF and IVF is very similar. The main difference is that ISF contains very little protein as compared with the IVF. The protein in plasma plays a significant role in maintaining the volume of the IVF.

12 Major electrolytes and their distribution

13 MOVEMENT OF BODY FLUIDS AND ELECTROLYTES
there is a continual intake and output within the body as a whole, and between the various compartments the composition and volume of the fluid is relativelly stable, a states called dynamic equilibrum or homeostasis.

14 Movement of Solutes Between Body Fluid Compartments - 1
Several factors affect how readily a solute diffuses across capillary and cell membranes 1. membrane permeability refers to the size of the membrane pores. 2. concentration and electric gradients interact to influence the movement of electrolytes termed the electrochemical potential. 3. electrical potential          

15 Movement of Solutes Between Body Fluid Compartments - 2
4. pressure gradients - hydrostatic pressure gradient increases the rate of diffusion of solutes through the capillary membrane - active transport systems - NaK-activated - ATPase system (sodium-potassium pump) located in cell membranes (3 Na+ ions out of the cell in exchange for two K+)

16 Movement of Water Between Body Fluid Compartments
-         controlled by 2 forces: -         1. hydrostatic pressure -         2. osmotic pressure Osmotic pressure refers to the drawing force for water exerted by soluted particles. Osmosis is the process of the net diffusion of water caused by a concentration gradient. Net diffusion of water occurs from an area of low solute concentration (dilute solution) to one of high solute concentration (concentrated solution) .   

17 Movement of Water Between the Plasma and Interstitial Fluid
- Na+ does not play an important role in the movement of water between the plasma and interstital fluid compartments - the distribution is determined by o  hydrostatic pressure of the capillary blood produced, mainly by the pumping action of the heart o colloid osmotic pressure produced primarily by serum albumin The accumulation of excess fluid in the interstitial spaces = edema

18 Starling forces

19 Factors favor edema formation:
 capillary hydrostatic pressure (Pc)  plasma oncotic pressure (c) 3.  capillary permeability (Kf) resulting in an  in interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure 4. lymphatic obstruction ( interstitial oncotic pressure)

20 Starling forces Pi i c Pc Kf Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)] Lymph
ICF ISF cell capillary IVF Pi i Kf c Pc Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)]

21 Pathogenesis of edema formation
 gradient of hydrostatic pressures (Pc – Pi) Heart failure; venous insufficiency  EABV  R-A-A (SAS, ADH)

22 Starling forces Pi i c Pc Kf Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)] Lymph
ICF ISF cell capillary IVF Pi i Kf c Pc Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)]

23 Pathogenesis of edema formation
2. gradient of oncotic pressures (c - i) -  plasma protein level  EABV  R-A-A (SAS, ADH)

24

25 Pathogenesis of edema formation
3. capillary permeability (Kf) resulting in an  interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure 4. lymphatic obstruction ( interstitial oncotic pressure)

26 Pathogenesis of ascites
Disturbance of liver  plasma albumin Portal hypertension  inactivation of ADH and aldosteron  capillary pressure in splanchnic region  plasma oncotic pressure  plasma volume (retention of Na and water) Ascites ADH secretion  plasma volume Aldosteron secretion volumoreceptor stimulation

27 Movement of Water Between the ECF and the ICF - 1
-   determined by osmotic forces: -  because Na+ composes over 90 % of the particles in the ECF, it has a major effect on TBW and its distribution -    ECF osmolality (becomes hyperosmotic)  water shifts from the ICF to the ECF, decreasing cell volume: hypertonic solution (3 % saline)  cell shrinkage  

28 Movement of Water Between the ECF and the ICF - 2
Cell in hypertonic solution water shifts from the ICF to the ECF decreasing cell volume (cell shrinkage) active  of intracellular osmotic pressure - water shifts from the ECF to the ICF increasing cell volume (general decreasing)

29 Movement of Water Between the ECF and the ICF - 3
-   determined by osmotic forces: -    ECF osmolality (becomes hypoosmotic), water shifts from the ECF to the ICF, increasing cell volume hypotonic solution (0.45 % saline)  cell swelling i.v. administration of isotonic saline  no change in the ICF volume or osmolality

30 Movement of Water Between the ECF and the ICF - 4
Cell in hypotonic solution water shifts from the ECF to the ICF increasing cell volume (cell swelling) active decreasing of intracellular osmotic pressure and water shifts from the ICF to the ECF decreasing of intracellular volume (general increasing)

31 Changes of red blood cells volume due to plasma osmolality disturbances

32 volume of erythrocytes (2 l)
TBF 40 l . IVF (3 l) volume of erythrocytes (2 l) . . . ECF (15 l) ICF (25 l) . . . . . . . . blood volume (5 l)

33 Plasma osmotic activity
= 2x [Na+] + urea + glucose = 2x [Na+ + K+] + 5

34 Example: Chronic renal insufficiency patient: Approximate osmolarity:
plasma Na+ level 125 mmol/l plasma glucose level 5 mmol/l plasma urea level 50 mmol/l Approximate osmolarity: 2 x = 305 mmol/l

35 Regulation of volume and osmolarity - 1
GIT Kidney – main regulatory system via releasing water and electrolytes Circulatory system perfusion distribution of water and electrolytes in body compartments (Starling forces) renal perfusion  releasing of water and electrolytes

36 Regulation of volume and osmolarity - 2
Signals for GIT – thirst Circulatory system – nervous system (sympathetic/ parasympathetic) Kidneys – nervous system + 3 hormonal regulatory systems: Antidiuretic hormon (ADH) Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) Renin – angiotenzin – aldosteron (R-A-A)

37 Regulation of volume and osmolarity - 3
Antidiuretic hormon (ADH) Stimulus for releasing  plasma osmolarity  effective circulatory volume  secretion Hypervolemia Hypoosmolarity Feed-back – ADH plasma level Target - distal tubulus and collecting duct  water permeability  urea permeability Effect up to min

38

39 Regulation of volume and osmolarity - 4
Renin – angiotensin – aldosteron (R-A-A) Activation of renin secretion:  kidney perfusion ( afferentation from vas afferens receptors;  CO – baroreceptors – SNS activation  NaCl in macula densa region Angiotensin I Angiotensin II Aldosteron

40 Main cells of distal tubules have intracelullar receptors for aldosterón. Receptors after hormon-binding act as transcript factors and they induce intracellular proteins which increased reabsorption of Na+ from tubules and K + secretion into the urine. Intercallar cells – regulation of ABB..

41

42

43 Regulation of volume and osmolarity - 5
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) Secretion timulus :  atrial filling Effects: Vessels – vasodilation of vas afferens Endocrine system –  secretion of ADH, renin and aldosteron Kidneys Glomerular hyperperfusion (via vasodilatation of vas afferens)   GFR  Na+ reabsorption   Na+ releasing

44  Water retention (kidney)
Heart failure  CO  EABV Activation R – A - A  Water retention (kidney)  Venous return  Diastolic filling  ANF ANF feed-back

45 VOLUME IMBALANCES Extracellular Fluid (ECF) Volume Deficit
= hypovolemia = the isotonic loss of body fluids, with relatively equal losses of sodium and water. - primarily affect ECF - relatively equal losses or gains of sodium and water  ECF volume deficit or excess - fluid will not be transferred from ICF to ECF (osmolality remains the same)

46 Volume imbalances -   affect ECF -  involve relatively equal losses or gains of Na+ and water leading to an ECF volume deficit or excess -  fluid will not be transferred from the ICF to the ECF as long as the osmolality in the two compartments remains the same

47 OSMOTIC IMBALANCES - primarily affect ICF
- relatively unequal losses or gains of sodium and water - hypoosmolality  cell swelling

48 Osmotic imbalances -   affect ICF - involve relatively unequal losses or gains of Na+ and water -  concentration of Na+ in the ECF  water moves from the ECF to the ICF (cell swelling) -    concentration of Na+ in ECF should  water moves from the ICF to ECF (cell shrinkage)

49 ECF volume deficit (hypovolemia)
Isotonic loss of body fluids; equal losses of sodium and water Causes: Blood or plasma loss sequestration of fluid in soft tissue injuries (third spacing): burns, peritonitis

50 ECF volume deficit - hypovolemia
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

51 ECF volume deficit - hypovolemia
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

52 ECF volume deficit (hypovolemia)
Consequences:  EABV ( venous return   cardiac output  hypotension) Hemodynamic changes Tachycardia Peripheral vasoconstriction  Ht ADH, R-A-A activation Clinical features: - circulatory collapse and shock - hematocrit and serum protein levels are elevated - normal natremia

53 Hyperosmolal hypohydratation - dehydration
Cause: increase loss of water than sodium (loss of hypoosmotic fluid) A. Loss of hypoosmolatic fluid Vomiting Diarrhea Sweating Disturbances of urine creation Polyuria in acute renal failure Osmotic diuresis Central or peripheral diabetes insipidus B. Decrease waterr intake Coma patients Patient unable to communicate (babies)  feeling of thirst (old people, „after surgery people“)

54 Hyperosmolal imbalance - dehydration
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

55 Hyperosmolal imbalance - dehydration
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

56 Hyperosmolal imbalance - dehydration
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

57 Hyperosmolal hypohydratation - dehydration
Consequences:  ECF osmolaity – cell shrinkage (CNS) - neurological manifestation: agitation, coma, seizures - thirst - dry mucosa, tongue - oliguria

58 ECF volume excess Cause: isoosmolar fluid retention
Accumulation of ECF Pathogenesis - alteration in Starling forces - congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis of the liver -  cardiac output   effective circulating volume  renal sodium retention  Ht (or normal)

59 Starling forces Pi i c Pc Kf Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)] Lymph
ICF ISF cell capillary IVF Pi i Kf c Pc Jr = Kf [(Pc – Pi) – (c - i)]

60 IVF  interstitial space  Na+ and water reabsorption
Heart failure Hepatic cirrhosis Nephrotic syndrome  CO  plasma albumin Ascites  plasma albumin  Pc IVF  interstitial space  EABV  SNS,  R-A-A  Na+ and water reabsorption Edema (hyperhydratation)

61 ECF volume excess – generalised edema
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

62 ECF volume excess – generalised edema
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

63 Hypoosmolar imbalance – water intoxication
Cause:  water intake or retention than sodium  water intake  ADH Endogennous origin – hypothalamus Ectopic creation ADH – bronchogenic CA, lymphomas,... Disturbances of kidneys Oligoanuric phase of acute renal failure

64 Hypoosmolar imbalance – water intoxication
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

65 Hypoosmolar imbalance – water intoxication
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV

66 Hypoosmolal imbalance – water intoxication
H2O NaCl IVV ISV ICV ECV


Download ppt "Disturbances of body fluids"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google