Presentation on theme: "Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Dynamics"— Presentation transcript:
1Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Dynamics Human Anatomy and Physiology IIOklahoma City Community CollegeThis is the presentation on Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Dynamics for Human Anatomy and Physiology II at Oklahoma City Community College.Dennis Anderson
2Concentration of Solutions Percent Salt0.9% NaClMilliosmoles300 milliosmoles/LiterMilliequivalents325 milliequivalents/LiterThe concentration of solutions can be expressed in several different units. One unit is a percent solution. Body fluids have the equivalent to 0.9% NaCl. Another method of expressing concentration is the number of milliosmoles per liter. This is a unit that expresses the concentration of all the solutes in a solution. Most body fluids have a concentration near 300 milliosmoles/Liter. Milliequivalents represent charged particles. Since our electrolytes have are charged, we usually express their concentration as milliequivalents. Each electrolyte in a solution contributes to the total electrolyte concentration. For example, sodium contributes about 144 milliequivalents of the 325 milliequivalents in the blood.
3OsmosisYou recall that osmosis is the movement of water across a membrane to the side of the membrane with more solutes. Which way will water move in this example? The concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell in this example. *Water will therefore move into the cell.
4OsmosisIn this example there are more solutes outside the cell. Which way will water move?
5Hypertonic Solution 0.9% NaCl 3% NaCl In this example a cell with the equivalent of 0.9% NaCl is in a 3% NaCl solution. Which way will water move? *Water will move to the outside of the cell. Since the solution outside the cell has more solutes we say it is a hypertonic solution.3% NaCl
6Cells Crenate in a Hypertonic Solution Cell in a hypertonic solution lose water. *Crenate is the term to describe the shrinking of the cell.
7Hypotonic Solution 0.9% NaCl 0.5% NaCl Which way will water move in this example? *Water will move into the cell because there are more solutes in the cell. *The solution outside of the cell is hypotonic.0.5% NaCl
8Cells in a Hypotonic Solution Swell and May Lyse Cells in a hypotonic solution may swell*. If the cell swells too much in will lyse.
9Isotonic Solution 0.9% NaCl 0.9% NaCl An isotonic solution will not cause an excess movement of water in or out of a cell. Most IV solutions are isotonic.0.9% NaCl
10Which Way Will Fluid Move? 300 mosm310 mosmIn this example the concentration is a cell is 300 milliosmoles. The concentration in the blood is at 310 milliosmoles. Which way will fluid move in this example? *Fluid will move into the blood because the solute concentration is higher in the blood.
11Application Problem 1Michael has recently started working outdoors in the hot weather to earn money for his tuition. After a few days he experienced headaches, low blood pressure and a rapid heart rate. His blood sodium was down to 125 meq/L. The normal is 144 meq/L. How do you explain this?Why has Michael’s sodium concentration decreased in his blood in this problem? Also why is he having headaches and a rapid heart rate?
12Answer to Problem 1Michael lost sodium by perspiration. The low sodium in his blood allowed fluid to move into cells by osmosis. Lack of fluid lowered his blood pressure to give him a headache. The increased heart rate was his bodies way of trying to increase blood pressure.
13Application Problem 2Frank has hypertension. His doctor has advised Frank eat a low salt diet. Frank consumed a lot of salt the day before his last checkup. His blood pressure was up. Why?Why was Frank’s blood pressure up in problem 2?
14Answer to Problem 2The extra salt Frank ate made his blood hypertonic. Hypertonic blood will attract fluids from body cells by osmosis.The salt he ate made his blood hypertonic. Hypertonic blood will attract fluids by osmosis.
15Electrolyte vrs. Nonelectrolyte NaCl Na+ + Cl-NaCl is an electrolyte. *It will separate into two particles when placed in water. Glucose is a nonelectrolyte. *It only forms one particle in water. The nonelectrolye glucose does not have as many particles to attract water as the electrolyte NaCl.GlucoseGlucose
16Carbon Dioxide and Acid CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-Carbonic AcidCarbon dioxide will form carbonic acid as illustrated on this slide. *Carbonic acid will release the hydrogen ion. It is hydrogen ions that determine the pH.
17More Carbon Dioxide = More Acid = Lower pH Breathing slower will retain CO2 , pH willdecrease (more acid)Breathing faster will eliminate more CO2 pH willincrease (less acid)More carbon dioxide means more acid and a lower pH *By breathing slower the body will retain carbon dioxide and the pH will decrease or become more acidic. *Breathing faster will eliminate more carbon dioxide and the pH will increase or become less acidic.
18Blood pH Drops to 7.3 How does the body compensate? Breath faster to get rid of carbon dioxideeliminates acidIf the blood pH drops to 7.3 how does the body compensate? *One thing it will do is breath faster to get rid of carbon dioxide. Eliminating carbon dioxide will eliminate acid and raise the pH.
19Blood pH Increases to 7.45 How does the body compensate? Breath slower to retain more carbon dioxideretains more acidIf the pH increases to 7.45 how does the body compensate? *It will breath slower to retain more carbon dioxide. This will increase the acid level in the blood to lower the pH.
20John is Taking Narcotics for Pain The narcotics have depressed his breathing rate. What will happen to his blood pH?pH will decrease because he will retain excess carbon dioxide which will increase the amount of acid in the bloodJohn is taking narcotics for pain. The narcotics have depressed his breathing rate. What will happen to his blood pH? *The pH will decrease because he will retain excess carbon dioxide with will increase the amount of acid in the blood.
21Buffers Regulate pH Chemicals that resist changes in pH Prevent large pH changes when an acid or base is addedBuffers are chemicals that regulate pH. They prevent large pH changes when an acid or base is added. They do not completely prevent pH changes. Buffers prevent large fluctuations in pH.
22Strong Acid Acid that releases many hydrogen ions HCl A strong acid is an acid that releases many hydrogen ions. HCl is a strong acid.
23Weak Acid Acid that releases only a few hydrogen ions Carbonic Acid Weak acids only release a few hydrogen ions. Carbonic acid is a weak acid.
24Buffers Change Strong Acids to Weak Acids H2CO3+ NaClWeak AcidSaltHCl + NaOHStrong AcidBaseBuffers change strong acids to weak acids. *The strong acid, HCl combines with NaOH, a base in one of the bodies buffer systems. *The reaction produces carbonic acid, a weak acid and salt. The buffer has changed the strong acid, HCl into the weak acid, H2CO3.
25Acidosis pH below 7.35 Depresses the nervous system coma Acidosis occurs when the pH in the blood falls below Acidosis depresses the nervous system. If acidosis is not reversed the person will go into a coma and die.
26Alkalosis pH above 7.45 Overexcites the nervous system convulsions Alkalosis is when the pH is above Alkalosis overexcites the nervous system and can cause convulsion. If alkalosis is not reversed a person can die.