Presentation on theme: "Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Dynamics Human Anatomy and Physiology II Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson."— Presentation transcript:
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Dynamics Human Anatomy and Physiology II Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson
Concentration of Solutions Percent Salt –0.9% NaCl Milliosmoles –300 milliosmoles/Liter Milliequivalents –325 milliequivalents/Liter
Hypertonic Solution 0.9% NaCl 3% NaCl
Cells Crenate in a Hypertonic Solution
Hypotonic Solution 0.9% NaCl 0.5% NaCl
Cells in a Hypotonic Solution Swell and May Lyse
Isotonic Solution 0.9% NaCl
310 mosm 300 mosm Which Way Will Fluid Move?
Application Problem 1 Michael has recently started working outdoors in the hot weather to earn money for his tuition. After a few days he experienced headaches, low blood pressure and a rapid heart rate. His blood sodium was down to 125 meq/L. The normal is 144 meq/L. How do you explain this?
Answer to Problem 1 Michael lost sodium by perspiration. The low sodium in his blood allowed fluid to move into cells by osmosis. Lack of fluid lowered his blood pressure to give him a headache. The increased heart rate was his bodies way of trying to increase blood pressure.
Application Problem 2 Frank has hypertension. His doctor has advised Frank eat a low salt diet. Frank consumed a lot of salt the day before his last checkup. His blood pressure was up. Why?
Answer to Problem 2 The extra salt Frank ate made his blood hypertonic. Hypertonic blood will attract fluids from body cells by osmosis.
Carbon Dioxide and Acid CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - Carbonic Acid
More Carbon Dioxide = More Acid = Lower pH Breathing slower will retain CO 2, pH will –decrease (more acid) Breathing faster will eliminate more CO 2 pH will –increase (less acid)
Blood pH Drops to 7.3 How does the body compensate? Breath faster to get rid of carbon dioxide –eliminates acid
Blood pH Increases to 7.45 How does the body compensate? Breath slower to retain more carbon dioxide –retains more acid
John is Taking Narcotics for Pain The narcotics have depressed his breathing rate. What will happen to his blood pH? pH will decrease because he will retain excess carbon dioxide which will increase the amount of acid in the blood
Buffers Regulate pH Chemicals that resist changes in pH Prevent large pH changes when an acid or base is added
Strong Acid Acid that releases many hydrogen ions HCl
Weak Acid Acid that releases only a few hydrogen ions Carbonic Acid
Buffers Change Strong Acids to Weak Acids HCl + NaOH Strong Acid Base H 2 CO 3 + NaCl Weak AcidSalt
Acidosis pH below 7.35 Depresses the nervous system –coma
Alkalosis pH above 7.45 Overexcites the nervous system –convulsions