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Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CHAPTER 27 Fluids and Electrolytes.

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Presentation on theme: "Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CHAPTER 27 Fluids and Electrolytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. CHAPTER 27 Fluids and Electrolytes

2 2 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid Balance  Total body water  Composed of: Intracellular fluid (ICF) Intracellular fluid (ICF) Interstitial fluid (ISF) Interstitial fluid (ISF) Plasma volume (PV) Plasma volume (PV)  60% of adult human body is water

3 3 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid Balance (cont’d)  Intravascular fluid (IVF)  Fluid inside blood vessels  Extravascular fluid (EVF)  Fluid outside blood vessels Lymph, cerebrospinal fluid Lymph, cerebrospinal fluid

4 4 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid Balance (cont’d)  Extracellular volume  Plasma  Interstitial fluid (ISF): fluid in space between cells, tissues, and organs  Extravascular volume  ISF (interstitial fluid)  ICF (intracellular fluid)

5 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

6 6 Fluid Balance (cont’d)  Plasma proteins exert constant osmotic pressure  Colloid oncotic pressure (COP)  Normally 24 mm Hg  ISF exerts hydrostatic pressure (HP)  Normally 17 mm Hg

7 7 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

8 8 Fluid Balance (cont’d)  Edema  Dehydration and fluid loss

9 9 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids  Fluids that supply water and electrolytes  Help to maintain osmotic gradient between extravascular and intravascular compartments  Plasma-volume expanders caused by sodium concentrations  Do not contain proteins (colloids)  Contain fluids and electrolytes that are normally found in the body

10 10 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont’d)  Better for treating dehydration rather than expanding plasma volume  Used as maintenance fluids to  Compensate for insensible fluid losses  Replace fluids  Manage specific fluid and electrolyte disturbances  Promote urinary flow

11 11 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont’d)  Normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride)  Half normal saline (0.45% sodium chloride)  Hypertonic saline (3% sodium chloride)  Lactated Ringer’s solution  D 5 W  Plasma-Lyte  Others

12 12 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont’d)  Indications include:  Acute liver failure  Acute nephrosis  Burns  Shock  Renal dialysis  Many other conditions

13 13 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont’d)  Adverse effects  May cause edema, especially peripheral or pulmonary  May dilute plasma proteins, reducing COP  Effects may be short-lived  Many other effects

14 14 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids  Protein substances  Increase COP  Move fluid from interstitial compartment to plasma compartment (when plasma protein levels are low)  Albumin 5% and 25% (from human donors)  Dextran 40, 70, or 75 (a glucose solution)  Hetastarch (synthetic, derived from cornstarch)

15 15 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids (cont’d)  Indications  Treat a wide variety of conditions  Superior to crystalloids in PV expansion, but more expensive

16 16 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids (cont’d) Adverse effects  Usually safe  Disadvantages  May cause altered coagulation, resulting in bleeding  Have no clotting factors or oxygen-carrying capacity  Few others

17 17 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products Oxygen-carrying resuscitation fluids  Only class of fluids that are able to carry oxygen  Increase tissue oxygenation  Increase plasma volume  Most expensive and least available fluid because they require human donors

18 18 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont’d)  Increase COP and PV  Pull fluid from extravascular space into intravascular space (plasma expanders)  RBC products also carry oxygen  Increase body’s supply of various products (such as clotting factors, hemoglobin)

19 19 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont’d) Indications  Cryoprecipitate and plasma protein factors (PPF)  Management of acute bleeding (greater than 50% slow blood loss or 20% acutely)  Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)  Increase clotting factor levels in patients with demonstrated deficiency

20 20 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products Indications  PRBCs and whole blood  To increase oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with anemia, substantial hemoglobin deficits  PRBCs: for blood loss up to 25% of total blood volume  Whole blood: for blood loss over 25% of total blood volume

21 21 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont’d)  Adverse effects  Incompatibility with recipient’s immune system  Transfusion reaction  Anaphylaxis  Transmission of pathogens to recipient (hepatitis, HIV)

22 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes  Principal ECF electrolytes  Sodium cations (NA + )  Chloride cations (Cl + )  Principal ICF electrolyte  Potassium (K + )  Others  Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus

23 23 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium  Most abundant positively charged electrolyte inside cells  95% of body’s potassium is intracellular  Potassium content outside of cells ranges from 3.5 to 5 mEq/L  Potassium levels are critical to normal body function

24 24 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d)  Potassium obtained from foods  Fruit and fruit juices (bananas, oranges, apricots, dates, raisins, broccoli, green beans, potatoes, tomatoes), meats, fish, wheat bread, and legumes  Excess dietary potassium excreted via kidneys  Impaired kidney function leads to higher serum levels, possibly toxicity

25 25 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont ’ d) Hyperkalemia: excessive serum potassium; serum potassium level over 5.5 mEq/L  Potassium supplements  ACE inhibitors  Renal failure  Excessive loss from cells  Potassium-sparing diuretics  Burns  Trauma  Metabolic acidosis  Hyperaldosteronism  Infections

26 26 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d) Hypokalemia: deficiency of potassium; serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L Excessive potassium loss (rather than poor dietary intake)  Burns (burn patients can have either hypokalemia or hyperkalemia)  Loop and thiazide diuretics  Vomiting  Malabsorption  Large amounts of licorice consumption  Alkalosis  Corticosteroids  Crash diets  Diarrhea  Ketoacidosis

27 27 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d)  Hypokalemia, in the presence of digoxin therapy, can cause digoxin toxicity, resulting in serious ventricular dysrhythmias

28 28 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d)  Potassium is responsible for:  Muscle contraction  Transmission of nerve impulses  Regulation of heartbeat  Maintenance of acid-base balance  Isotonicity  Many other functions in the body

29 29 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d)  Main indication  Treatment or prevention of potassium depletion when dietary means are inadequate

30 30 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d) Adverse effects  Oral preparations  Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, GI bleeding, ulceration  IV administration  Pain at injection site  Phlebitis  Excessive administration  Hyperkalemia  Toxic effects

31 31 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont’d)  Hyperkalemia  Muscle weakness, paresthesia, paralysis, cardiac rhythm irregularities (leading to possible ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest)  Treatment of severe hyperkalemia  IV sodium bicarbonate, calcium salts, dextrose with insulin  Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) or hemodialysis to remove excess potassium

32 32 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium  Most abundant positively charged electrolyte outside cells  Normal concentration outside cells is 135 to 145 mEq/L  Maintained through dietary intake of sodium chloride  Salt, fish, meats, foods flavored or preserved with salt

33 33 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont’d) Hyponatremia: sodium loss or deficiency; serum levels below 135 mEq/L  Symptoms  Lethargy, stomach cramps, hypotension, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures  Causes  Same causes as hypokalemia; also excessive perspiration (during hot weather or physical work), prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, or renal disorders

34 34 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont’d) Hypernatremia: sodium excess; serum levels over 145 mEq/L  Symptoms  Water retention (edema), hypertension  Red, flushed skin; dry, sticky mucous membranes; increased thirst; elevated temperature; decreased urine output  Causes  Poor renal excretion stemming from kidney malfunction; inadequate water consumption and dehydration

35 35 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont’d)  Sodium is responsible for:  Control of water distribution  Fluid and electrolyte balance  Osmotic pressure of body fluids  Participation in acid-base balance

36 36 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont’d)  Main indication  Treatment or prevention of sodium depletion when dietary measures are inadequate  Mild Treated with oral sodium chloride and/or fluid restriction Treated with oral sodium chloride and/or fluid restriction  Severe Treated with intravenous normal saline or lactated Ringer’s solution Treated with intravenous normal saline or lactated Ringer’s solution

37 37 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont’d)  Adverse effects  Oral administration Nausea, vomiting, cramps Nausea, vomiting, cramps  IV administration Venous phlebitis Venous phlebitis

38 38 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Implications  Assess baseline fluid volume and electrolyte status  Assess baseline vital signs  Assess skin, mucous membranes, daily weights, I&O  Before giving potassium, assess ECG  Assess for contraindications to therapy  Assess transfusion history  Establish venous access as needed

39 39 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Implications (cont’d)  Monitor serum electrolyte levels during therapy  Monitor infusion rate, appearance of fluid or solution, infusion site  Observe for infiltration, other complications of IV therapy

40 40 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Implications (cont’d)  Parenteral infusions of potassium must be monitored closely  Rate should not exceed 20 mEq/hour  NEVER give as an IV bolus or undiluted  Oral forms of potassium  Must be diluted in water or fruit juice to minimize GI distress or irritation  Monitor for complaints of nausea, vomiting, GI pain, or GI bleeding

41 41 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Implications (cont’d)  Administer colloids slowly  Monitor for fluid overload and possible heart failure  For blood products, follow administration procedures closely  Monitor closely for signs of transfusion reactions

42 42 Mosby items and derived items © 2011, 2007, 2004 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Nursing Implications (cont’d)  Monitor for therapeutic response  Normal lab values RBCs, WBC, H&H, electrolyte levels RBCs, WBC, H&H, electrolyte levels  Improved fluid volume status  Increased tolerance to activities  Monitor for adverse effects


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