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Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 27 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance

2 ECFICF different ion compositions different fluid compartments same osmotic concentration interstitial fluid blood plasma cytoplasm ≠ ~1/3~2/3 Fluid basics

3 1. all homeostatic mechanisms monitor the ECF, not the ICF 2.receptors can’t monitor [ion] but can monitor: plasma volume osmotic concentration 3.cells cannot actively move H 2 O “water follows salt”

4 Fluid basics 4.[water] and [electrolyte] will rise if gains exceed losses will fall if losses exceed gains

5 hormone basics 1.ADH(antidiuretic hormone) high blood [osmotic] release H2O conservation in kidney stimulates thirst

6 hormone basics 2.Aldosterone rising [K+] falling [Na+] renin release released in response to: [Na + ], Cl -, H 2 O reabsorption in kidney

7 hormone basics 3.Natriuretic hormones block ADH release block aldosterone release released cardiac/brain cells [Na + ] and H 2 O lost to urine

8 interstitial fluid plasma Fluid movements ECF colloid osmotic pressure hydrostatic pressure

9 Fluid movements fig 21-12

10 interstitial fluid plasma Fluid movements ECF colloid osmotic pressure hydrostatic pressure ICF rapid movement between ICF and ECF is called fluid shift

11 If [osmotic]  hypertonic H2OH2O Fluid shift ECFICF

12 If [osmotic]  hypotonic H2OH2O Fluid shift ECFICF

13 Fluid shift net loss of waterdehydration sweating, vomiting, diarrhea ICF and ECF become more concentrated  hypernatrimia  ADH, renin secretion   thirst, … give hypotonic fluids (H 2 O)

14 Fluid shift net gain of water  into ECF  into ICF  reduce ADH secretion  increase fluid loss

15 Fluid shift net gain of water water excess (overhydration) drinking a lot injection of hypotonic solution kidney or liver failure excess ADH production  hyponatrimia effects on CNS H 2 O intoxication

16 Electrolyte balance electrolyte balance: will affect H2O balance will affect cell functions Na + K+K+ most common electrolyte balance problems less common more serious

17 Electrolyte balance Na + too much  ADH,  retain H 2 O renin-angiotensinogen  retain Na +, H 2 O too little  ADH,  lose H 2 O ANP, BNP  lose Na +, H 2 O

18 Electrolyte balance K+K+ 98% is in ICF balance in ECF is small maintained by secretion in kidney

19 Electrolyte balance K+K+ too muchsevere cardiac arrhythmias too little  and 

20 100 Keyspg “Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are interrelated. Small water gains or losses affect electrolyte concentrations only temporarily. The impacts are reduced by fluid shifts between the ECF and ICF, and by hormonal responses that adjust the rates of water intake and excretion. Similarly, electrolyte gains or losses produce only temporary changes in solute concentration. These changes are opposed by fluid shifts, adjustments in the rates of ion absorption and secretion, an adjustments to the rates of water gain and loss.”

21 100 Keyspg “The most common and acute acid- base disorder is respiratory acidosis, which develops when respiratory activity cannot keep pace with the rate of carbon dioxide generation in peripheral tissues.”


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