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Acid Base Balance NCLEX Review Questions. Acid Base Balance An arterial blood gas (ABG) sample reports the status of oxygenation and acid-base balance.

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Presentation on theme: "Acid Base Balance NCLEX Review Questions. Acid Base Balance An arterial blood gas (ABG) sample reports the status of oxygenation and acid-base balance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Acid Base Balance NCLEX Review Questions

2 Acid Base Balance An arterial blood gas (ABG) sample reports the status of oxygenation and acid-base balance in the blood. An arterial blood gas (ABG) sample reports the status of oxygenation and acid-base balance in the blood.

3 Acid Base Balance An ABG measures: ◦ pH – the amount of free hydrogen ions in the (H+) ◦ PaO2 – the partial pressure of oxygen ◦ PaCO2 – the partial pressure of carbon dioxide ◦ HCO3 – the concentration of bicarbonate ◦ SaO2 – percentage of oxygen bound to hemoglobin as compared to the total amount that can possible be carried

4 Acid Base Balance ABG MeasureNormal Range pH7.35 – 7.45 PaO280 – 100 mmHg PaCO mmHg HCO322 – 26 mEq/L SaO %

5 Acid Base Balance Blood pH levels may be affected by any number of disease processes (respiratory, endocrine, or neurologic). Blood pH levels below 7.35 reflect acidosis, while levels above 7.45 reflect alkalosis. ABGs can be obtained by an arterial puncture or through an arterial line.

6 Acid Base Balance If you can remember the following pyramid points and steps, you will be able to analyze any blood gas report. Pyramid Points ◦ In acidosis, the pH is down. ◦ In alkalosis, the pH is up. ◦ The respiratory function indicator is the PCO2 value. ◦ The metabolic function indicator is the HCO3 level.

7 Pyramid Steps Step 1 ◦ Look at the pH. Is it up or down? If it is up, it reflects alkalosis. If it is down, it reflects acidosis. Step 2 ◦ Look at the PCO2 level. Is it up or down? If it reflects an opposite relationship to the pH, then you know that the condition is a respiratory imbalance. If it does not reflect an opposite relationship to the pH, then move to step 3

8 Pyramid Steps Step 3 ◦ Look at the HCO3 level. Does the HCO3 level reflect a corresponding relationship to the pH? If it does, then the condition is a metabolic imbalance.

9 Acid Base Balance Respiratory Acidosis ◦ The pH is down. ◦ The PCO2 is up. Respiratory alkalosis ◦ The pH is up. ◦ The PCO2 is down.

10 Acid Base Balance Metabolic acidosis ◦ The pH is down. ◦ The HCO3 is down. Metabolic Alkalosis ◦ The pH is up. ◦ The HCO3 is up.

11 Acid Base Balance A client with diabetes mellitus has a blood glucose on admission of 596 mg/dL. The nurse anticipates that this client would be experiencing which of the following types of acid-base imbalance? a. Metabolic acidosis b. Metabolic alkalosis c. Respiratory acidosis d. Respiratory alkalosis

12 Acid Base Balance A client with diabetes mellitus has a blood glucose on admission of 596 mg/dL. The nurse anticipates that this client would be experiencing which of the following types of acid-base imbalance? a. Metabolic acidosis b. Metabolic alkalosis c. Respiratory acidosis d. Respiratory alkalosis

13 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting to admit a client with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The nurse knows that if the disease is severe enough, the client will be at risk for which of the following acid-base imbalances? a. Metabolic acidosis b. Metabolic alkalosis c. Respiratory acidosis d. Respiratory alkalosis

14 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting to admit a client with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. The nurse knows that if the disease is severe enough, the client will be at risk for which of the following acid-base imbalances? a. Metabolic acidosis b. Metabolic alkalosis c. Respiratory acidosis d. Respiratory alkalosis

15 Acid Base Balance A client is determined to be in respiratory alkalosis by blood gas analysis. The nurse would monitor this client for signs of which of the following electrolyte disorders that could accompany the acid- base imbalance? a. Hypercalcemia b. Hypochloremia c. Hypernatremia d. Hypokalemia

16 Acid Base Balance A client is determined to be in respiratory alkalosis by blood gas analysis. The nurse would monitor this client for signs of which of the following electrolyte disorders that could accompany the acid- base imbalance? a. Hypercalcemia b. Hypochloremia c. Hypernatremia d. Hypokalemia

17 Acid Base Balance A nurse is caring for a client who is nervous and is hyperventilating. The nurse would monitor the client for signs of which of the following acid-base imbalances? a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic alkalosis d. Metabolic acidosis

18 Acid Base Balance A nurse is caring for a client who is nervous and is hyperventilating. The nurse would monitor the client for signs of which of the following acid-base imbalances? a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic alkalosis d. Metabolic acidosis

19 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting in the care of a client for whom an arterial blood gas (ABG) must be drawn. The nurse notes that the person who draws the blood sample from the radial artery performs Allen’s test first. The nurse understands that this is being done to determine the adequacy of the: a. Carotid circulation b. Ulnar circulation c. Femoral circulation d.Brachial circulation

20 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting in the care of a client for whom an arterial blood gas (ABG) must be drawn. The nurse notes that the person who draws the blood sample from the radial artery performs Allen’s test first. The nurse understands that this is being done to determine the adequacy of the: a. Carotid circulation b. Ulnar circulation c. Femoral circulation d.Brachial circulation

21 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting in the care of a client who had an ileostomy created a few days ago. Owing to the normally high output of drainage from this type of ostomy, the nurse monitors the client for signs of: A. Metabolic acidosis B. Metabolic alkalosis C. Respiratory acidosis D. Respiratory alkalosis

22 Acid Base Balance A nurse is assisting in the care of a client who had an ileostomy created a few days ago. Owing to the normally high output of drainage from this type of ostomy, the nurse monitors the client for signs of: A. Metabolic acidosis B. Metabolic alkalosis C. Respiratory acidosis D. Respiratory alkalosis

23 Acid Base Balance A client with a chronic airflow limitation is experiencing respiratory acidosis as a complication. The nurse who is trying to enhance the client’s respiratory status would avoid doing which of the following? a. Keeping the head of the bed elevated b. Monitoring the flow rate of supplemental oxygen c. Assisting the client to turn, cough, and deep breathe d. Encouraging the client to breathe slowly and shallowly

24 Acid Base Balance A client with a chronic airflow limitation is experiencing respiratory acidosis as a complication. The nurse who is trying to enhance the client’s respiratory status would avoid doing which of the following? a. Keeping the head of the bed elevated b. Monitoring the flow rate of supplemental oxygen c. Assisting the client to turn, cough, and deep breathe d. Encouraging the client to breathe slowly and shallowly

25 Acid Base Balance An anxious client is experiencing respiratory alkalosis from hyperventilation due to anxiety. The nurse would do which of the following to help the client experiencing this acid-base disorder? A. Withhold all sedative or antianxiety medications. B. Provide emotional support and reassurance. C. Tell the client to breathe very deeply but more slowly. D. Put the client in a supine position.

26 Acid Base Balance An anxious client is experiencing respiratory alkalosis from hyperventilation due to anxiety. The nurse would do which of the following to help the client experiencing this acid-base disorder? A. Withhold all sedative or antianxiety medications. B. Provide emotional support and reassurance. C. Tell the client to breathe very deeply but more slowly. D. Put the client in a supine position.

27 Acid Base Balance A client is being treated for metabolic acidosis with medication therapy and other measures. The nurse would plan to most carefully note the levels of which of the following electrolytes, which could dramatically decline with effective treatment of the acidosis? A. Sodium B. Potassium C. Magnesium D. Phosphorus

28 Acid Base Balance A client is being treated for metabolic acidosis with medication therapy and other measures. The nurse would plan to most carefully note the levels of which of the following electrolytes, which could dramatically decline with effective treatment of the acidosis? A. Sodium B. Potassium C. Magnesium D. Phosphorus

29 Acid Base Balance A licensed practical nurse (LPN) is assisting in the care of a client who overdosed on aspirin 24 hours ago. The LPN would report to the registered nurse (RN) which of the following findings associated with an anticipated acid-base disturbance? a. Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea b. Decreased respiratory rate and depth, cardiac irregularities c. Disorientation and dyspnea d. Tachypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias

30 Acid Base Balance A licensed practical nurse (LPN) is assisting in the care of a client who overdosed on aspirin 24 hours ago. The LPN would report to the registered nurse (RN) which of the following findings associated with an anticipated acid-base disturbance? a. Drowsiness, headache, and tachypnea b. Decreased respiratory rate and depth, cardiac irregularities c. Disorientation and dyspnea d. Tachypnea, dizziness, and paresthesias


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