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Battery Agenda Presented by NBEAA and Friends 1/12/2010 Updated 1/13/2010 1 PM Goals of this Session What is a Battery? Battery History Parts of a Battery.

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Presentation on theme: "Battery Agenda Presented by NBEAA and Friends 1/12/2010 Updated 1/13/2010 1 PM Goals of this Session What is a Battery? Battery History Parts of a Battery."— Presentation transcript:

1 Battery Agenda Presented by NBEAA and Friends 1/12/2010 Updated 1/13/2010 1 PM Goals of this Session What is a Battery? Battery History Parts of a Battery Standard Electrode Potential Electrolytes Make a Battery Measuring Battery Power Chemical Reactions Make a Better Battery Experimental Results

2 Goals of this Session Prepare students to be viable contenders at the upcoming 4 th through 6 th grade Science Olympiad. Build on classroom textbook, lecture and lab experiences to provide a deeper understanding of batteries, with an emphasis on the chemistry of the electrical power they provide. Energy storage capacity and rechargability, two other key aspects of batteries, are not covered in depth during this session. Provide an opportunity to learn scientific observation and note taking skills. Motivate students to like science through fun, hands-on laboratory experiments. NOTE: ELECTROCHEMISTRY CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS. DO NOT ATTEMPT ANY OF THE FOLLOWING OR OTHER CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS WITHOUT ADULT SUPERVISION OF SOMEONE WHO UNDERSTANDS CHEMISTRY. BURNS, BLINDNESS, EXPLOSIONS AND EVEN DEATH MAY OCCUR!

3 What is a Battery? A battery is an electrical energy storage device that comes in many different forms. Attributes include: - chemistry - power - capacity - size - weight - shape - voltage - rechargability - toxicity - portable or stationary - open, vented, sealed or solid - series and parallel cell configuration Brainstorm different types of batteries you are aware of, what they are used for, and describe the attributes that you are aware of. This is actually a cell, but is commonly called a battery. Batteries are a group of cells.

4 Battery History Rechargeable batteries in bold. First battery, “Voltaic Pile”, Zn-Cu with NaCl electrolyte, non- rechargeable, but short shelf life 1800ItalyAlessandro Volta First battery with long shelf life, “Daniel Cell”, Zn-Cu with H2SO4 and CuSO4 electrolytes, non-rechargeable 1836EnglandJohn Fedine First electric carriage, 4 MPH with non-rechargeable batteries 1839ScotlandRobert Anderson First rechargeable battery, “lead acid”, Pb-PbO2 with H2SO4 electrolyte 1859FranceGaston Plante First mass produced non-spillable battery, “dry cell”, ZnC- Mn02 with ammonium disulphate electrolyte, non- rechargeable 1896GermanyCarl Gassner Ni-Cd battery with potassium hydroxide electrolyte invented 1910SwedenWalmer Junger First mass produced electric vehicle, with “Edison nickel iron” NiOOH-Fe rechargeable battery with potassium hydroxide electrolyte 1914USThomas Edison and Henry Ford Modern low cost “Eveready (now Energizer) Alkaline” non- rechargeable battery invented, Zn-MnO2 with alkaline electrolyte 1955USLewis Curry NiH2 long life rechargeable batteries put in satellites1970sUS NiMH batteries invented1989US Li Ion batteries sold1991US LiFePO4 invented1997US

5 Parts of a Battery negative terminalpositive terminal electrolyte case “anode” negative electrode “cathode” positive electrode

6 Standard Electrode Potential Electrode TypeMaterialAbbreviationStandard Potential CathodeCopperCu+0.34 V AnodeIronFe-0.44 V ZincZn-0.76 V AluminumAl-1.66 V Standard Electrode Potential is the tendency of the chemical to acquire electrons. Also called Electro-Motive Force or EMF. Measured in Volts. Electrode materials used in this session include: The open circuit voltage of a battery is determined by the difference between the cathode and the anode. For example, a pure Cu-Zn cell is 0.34 - (- 0.76) = 0.34 + 0.76 = 1.10 Volts. We measure up to 1.00 Volts. The highest known voltage metal battery would be Ag-Li (silver-lithium) at 1.98 + 3.04 = 5.02 Volts, but silver is rare and quite expensive.

7 Electrolytes Electrolyte TypeSolutionComment AcidsVegetable oilWeak acid Coffee6 pH Milk6 pH Apple juice3 pH Balsamic vinegar3 pH lemon juice2 pH SaltsSalt waterCan have high ion concentration Electrolytes are usually liquids that contain electrically charged ions which are used to conduct electricity between the electrodes of a battery. Electrolytes used in this session: The more small free ions in the solution that can move quickly, the more power a battery can deliver. Lower pH and heavy salts tend to have more ions and increase power.

8 Make a Battery negative terminalpositive terminal salt water electrolyte open jar case galvanized nail anodecopper wire cathode

9 Make a Battery negative terminalpositive terminal orange juice and pulp electrolyte (acetic acid) orange skin case galvanized nail anodecopper wire cathode Other wet acidic fruits and vegetables can be used.

10 Measuring Battery Power 2 Cu-Zn- lemon juice cells powering an LED; 1.6 Volts, 0.6 milliAmps, 1 milliWatt

11 Measuring Battery Power 48 LiFePO4 cells powering a car: 140 Volts, 325 Amps, 45 kiloWatts Draws 45 MILLION times more power than one LED!

12 Measuring Battery Power 1 Cu-Zn-salt water cell loaded with variable resistor

13 Measuring Battery Power Voc Rint Rload Vload Ohm’s Law: V = I x R Vload = Voc when Rload is very large Vload = ½ Voc at maximum power Power = V x I Maximum power = Voc ^ 2 4 * Rint Adjust Rload until Vload = ½ x Voc, then measure Rload in Ohms, using a multimeter Lower internal resistance and higher Voc increase power Battery

14 Chemical Reactions

15 Some of the elements used today: anodescathodeelectrolytejar

16 Chemical Reactions Cu-Zn-NaCl/H2O Cell During Discharge anode cathode load Cu(s) Zn(s) Cu 2+ Zn 2+ 2e - Na + Cl- H2(g) ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ - - - - - electrolyte Anode reactionsCathode reactions primarysecondaryprimarysecondary oxidationZn(s) > Zn2+ + 2e-Cu(s) > Cu2+ + 2e- reductionZn2+ + 2e- > Zn(s)2H+ + 2e- > H2 (g)Cu2+ + 2e > Cu(s) OH- H2O H+H+ Up to 1.1V EMF Zn and Cu both dissolve in electrolyte without load attached, Zn faster than Cu; much faster when load attached. Electrons travel from the anode through the load to the cathode, causing a charge imbalance. NaCl spontaneously disassociates in to ions when put in water. It balances the charge by moving next to the oppositely charged electrode without chemically reacting and forming a bond. H2O is disassociated in to OH - and H + in the presence of the EMF. OH- balances charge like Cl- does; H + combines with 2e- to form hydrogen gas. NOTE: a larger cell could be explosive!

17 Chemical Reactions These electrodes were left in balsamic vinegar overnight All Zn removed from Fe Some Cu removed

18 Make a Better Battery Improvements: More power More ions in electrolyte More electrode surface area Higher electrode potential difference More portable Add vented lid Add rigid terminals Brainstorm how an even better battery can be made. Describe how commercial batteries are made.

19 Make a Better Battery ItemVariations to try today CathodeCopper wire, copper tubing Straight wire, coiled wire AnodeStainless steel spoke, aluminum sheet, de-galvanized nail, coated screw, galvanized sheet, galvanized nail Single nail, multiple nails ElectrolyteVegetable oil, coffee, milk, apple juice, balsamic vinegar, lemon juice, salt water 1” deep, 2” deep

20 Experimental Results: Electrodes Print and fill in this table for 1” lemon juice electrolyte contact depth with electrodes. Describe why you got these results. ElectrolyteCathodeAnodeVocRintPmax = Voc^2/(4*Rint) Lemon juiceCu wireZn nail Cu tubeStainless Fe spoke Al sheet De-Zn Fe nail Coated Fe screw Zn sheet Zn nail

21 Experimental Results: Electrolyte Print and fill in this table for 1” electrolyte contact depth with electrodes. CathodeAnodeElectrolyteVocRintPmax = Voc^2/(4*Rint) Cu tubeZn nailVegetable oil Lemon Tap water Salt water Coffee Milk Apple juice Balsamic vinegar Lemon juice Describe why you got these results.

22 Appendix

23 Experimental Results: Electrodes ~1” lemon juice electrolyte contact depth with electrodes. Collected 1/12/10. ElectrolyteCathodeAnodeVoc, VoltsRint, OhmsPmax, milliWatts =Voc^2/(4*Rint) 1Lemon juiceCu wireZn nail.847,1600.025 2Cu tubeStainless Fe spoke-.103,0200.001 3Al sheet.611980.470 4De-Zn Fe nail.72156 0.831 5Coated Fe screw.921311.615 6Zn sheet1.001351.852 7Zn nail.90882.301 Why? 1.Thin Cu wire has small surface area. 2.Stainless Fe spoke must have a thick surface layer impeding the reaction. 3.Expected higher voltage in Al; must have a surface layer. 4.Fe has 0.32V lower EMF and reactivity than Zn, similar to 0.28V measured to Zn sheet. 5.Fe screw probably zinc plated, but must also have a surface layer. 6.Purer Zn in sheet form raises voltage, but must also have a surface layer. 7.Copper tube has larger surface area.

24 Experimental Results: Electrolyte ~1” electrolyte contact depth with electrodes. Collected 1/12/10. CathodeAnodeElectrolyteVoc, VoltsRint, OhmsPmax, milliWatts =Voc^2/(4*Rint) 1Cu tubeZn nailVegetable oil.00n/a0.000 2Lemon.851,6720.108 3Tap water.921,0290.206 4Coffee.857290.248 5Milk.905670.357 6Apple juice.903690.549 7Balsamic vinegar.851930.936 8Lemon juice.90882.301 9Salt water.82404.203 Why? 1.No water to provide the H+ for cathode reduction. 2.Membranes inside lemon must impede ion flow in ~2 pH acetic acid electrolyte. Crushing lemon may improve power. 3.Not enough ions to balance the charge in the electrolyte. 4.Weak acid, pH probably >6, some more ions than tap water. 5.Stronger acid; pH probably <6, phosphoric acid in milk must have lower pH. 6.Even stronger acid, pH probably >3. 7.Yet even stronger acid, pH probably <3. 8.Yet again even stronger acid, pH ~2. 9.Na+ and Cl- ion saturation concentration must be more than the weaker acids tested. HCl may be better but can burn skin vs. salt which does not hurt.

25 Ideas for next time: 1.Better time management – did not get to measuring resistances at the end. Either break in to multiple 1-hour sessions or remove/streamline material 2.Verify H20 goes to OH- and H+ and not 2H+ and O2-; if so, then why does electrolysis generate H2 and O2, shouldn’t this battery EMF do the same? Try to capture the gasses safely? Easier to do with caps on each half of a Daniel cell 3.Figure out what the surface layers are on the dog electrodes; file them off and see if they improve 4.Mount LEDs and variable resistor on wood with nail terminals to speed up data collection process without making the experiment too polished and kitted 5.Add deeper electrolyte to data collection matrix to show surface area; add measurements of electrode surface areas and do correlation 6.Measure more fruits and vegetables, clean electrodes and then cut out areas touched by electrodes so the rest can be eaten; try mushing up the lemon to see if it works better with the membranes split 7.Get pH testers – litmus paper, electronic probe, perhaps borrow one, or take data and present it; determine ionic concentration vs. pH and difference in reactivity between types of electrolyte acids and salts 8.Improve, simplify and speed up presentation of chemical reactions slide #16 by drawing bubbly shaped molecules, then doing a succession of a few slides that can be played as a movie that shows: all molecules in their separate states the salt put in water and disassociating Cu electrode put in to electrolyte and dissolving slowly Zn electrode put in electrolyte dissolving faster the load attached and the Zn dissolving even faster the electrons moving through the load, note doing work, emitting light and generating heat the Na+ and Cl- moving towards their respective electrodes to balance charge the water being disassociated by the EMF the hydrogen gas forming the hydrogen gas rising the end state when the Zn(s) runs out The state of each item when removed from the assembly 9.Add pictures of historical batteries – Voltaic Pile, Daniel Cell, other cell cross sections 10.Do a Daniel cell with two jars and a salt bridge, compare power data, and explain how it works and why it is better, similar to above 11.Make a far more powerful safe non-toxic battery – salt water battery with larger and easily replaceable zinc plates and large copper plate, portable, with cap on one terminal and vent, that can run the home made DC motor presented earlier, add homemade capacitor between battery and motor to use lower power battery for higher power bursts needed, eventually in EV component assembly display for car shows; may need to be a Daniel cell; eventually make simplified motor controller, charger, DCDC converter, BMS and VMU displays that attach 12.Do capacity testing vs. discharge rate and different quantities of Zn; compare Daniel cell to single jar version 13.Make a Voltaic pile out of pennies, aluminum foil, and wet and salty cloth 14.Make a safe non-toxic rechargable battery. Don’t know how to do it; study NiMH, other toxic/dangerous batteries, research what schools and battery companies have done for educational purposes, consult with chemists from these institutions

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