Presentation on theme: "Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes. Electricity can flow only when there are free moving charged particles present! In a solid, the free moving charged particles."— Presentation transcript:
Electricity can flow only when there are free moving charged particles present! In a solid, the free moving charged particles must be electrons. In a liquid, gas, or solution, the free moving charged particles must be usually ions. e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- ― ― ― ― ― + + + + + + + + ― ― ―
Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes Substances whose aqueous solutions are conductors of electricity are called ELECTROLYTES. Substances whose aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity are called NONELECTROLYTES. Organic compounds are usually nonelectrolytes. Electrolytes provide free moving IONS to water whereas nonelectrolytes do not provide free moving IONS to water. + + + ― ― ― Electrolyte dissolved in Water + - + - + - + - Nonelectrolyte dissolved in Water
Pure solid metals can conduct electricity. Pure solid metals can conduct electricity because free moving ELECTRONS are present! Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e-
Melted ionic substances can conduct electricity. Melted ionic substances can conduct electricity because free moving IONS are present! Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes ― ― ― ― ― + + + + +
+ + + ― ― ― Aqueous ionic substances (dissolved in water) can conduct electricity. Aqueous ionic substances (dissolved in water) can conduct electricity because free moving IONS are present! Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes
Acids, bases, and salts are examples of electrolytes. Sugars and alcohols are examples of nonelectrolytes. Ex.1) To conduct electricity a solid must have ____________________ Ex.2) To conduct electricity, an aqueous solution must have _______________ A solute formula’s ideal “i” value is equal to the number of particles it will create in an aqueous solution. The ideal “i” value for all nonelectrolytes is always equal to 1. The ideal “i” value for an electrolyte is equal to the total number of ions it will create in solution. free moving electrons. free moving ions.
Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes Ex.3) Classify the each following solute formulas as a(n) acid, base, salt, sugar, or alcohol and then give its ideal “i” value. (a) KCl________“i” = _____ (b) HCl ________“i” = _____ (c) Ba(OH) 2 ________“i” = _____ (d) CH 3 OH________“i” = _____ (e) C 6 H 12 O 6 ________“i” = _____ (f) H 2 SO 4 ________“i” = _____ (g) CH 3 COOH________“i” = _____ salt 2 acid base alcohol sugar 2 3 1 1 3 2
Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes Ex.4) Write the dissolving equations for the substances in question #3. (a) _______________________________________ (b) _______________________________________ (c) _______________________________________ (d) _______________________________________ (e) _______________________________________ (f) _______________________________________ (g) _______________________________________ KCl (s) KCl+ 1+ (aq) 1- (aq) HCl (g) H 1+ (aq) +Cl 1- (aq) Ba(OH) 2(s) Ba 2+ (aq) +2 OH 1- (aq) CH 3 OH ( l ) CH 3 OH (aq) H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O C 6 H 12 O 6(s) C 6 H 12 O 6(aq) H2OH2O H 2 SO 4(s) H2OH2O 2 H 1+ (aq) +SO 4 2- (aq) CH 3 COOH (s) H2OH2O CH 3 COO 1- (aq) +H 1+ (aq)
Electrolytes & Nonelectrolytes Ex.5) Generally (organic / inorganic) _________. substances are nonelectrolytes. Ex.6) Pure water is a _____________ of electricity. Ex.7) Ionic compounds do not conduct an electric current when in the ______ phase. Ex.8) The formation of free moving of the charged particles as a solute dissolves in water permits the solution to _________ an electric current. Ex.9) Substances that do not conduct an electric current when dissolved in water are called _______________. Ex.10) Which of the following substances will conduct electricity the least when added to water? (1) C 2 H 5 COOH (3) C 6 H 12 O 6 (2) Ca(OH) 2 (4) ZnSO 4 organic nonconductor solid conduct nonelectrolytes acid base sugar salt
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