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Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. CHAPTER 26 Fluids and Electrolytes.

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Presentation on theme: "Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. CHAPTER 26 Fluids and Electrolytes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. CHAPTER 26 Fluids and Electrolytes

2 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluid Balance Total body water 60% of adult human body is water Three main compartments –Intracellular fluid (ICF) –Interstitial fluid (ISF) –Plasma volume (PV)

3 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluid Balance Intravascular fluid (IVF) –Fluid inside blood vessels Extravascular fluid (EVF) –Fluid outside blood vessels

4 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluid Balance Extracellular volume –Plasma –Interstitial fluid (ISF): fluid in space between cells, tissues, and organs Extravascular volume –ISF (interstitial fluid) –ICF (intercellular fluid)

5 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Figure 26-1 Distribution of total body water (TBW). ECF, Extracellular fluid; ICF, intracellular fluid; ISF, interstitial fluid; PV, plasma volume.

6 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-1 Fluid location: descriptive terms and actual volumes

7 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluid Balance Plasma proteins exert constant osmotic pressure –Colloid oncotic pressure (COP) –Normally 24 mm Hg ISF exerts hydrostatic pressure (HP) –Normally 17 mm Hg

8 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Figure 26-2 Colloid osmotic pressure (oncotic pressure). As shown, the colloids inside the blood vessel are too large to pass through the vessel wall. The resulting oncotic pressure exerted by the colloids draws fluid from the surrounding tissues and other extravascular spaces into the blood vessels and also keeps fluid inside the blood vessel.

9 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluid Balance Edema Dehydration and fluid loss

10 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-2 Types of dehydration

11 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-3 Conditions leading to fluid loss or dehydration and associated corresponding symptoms

12 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids Fluids that supply water and sodium Help to maintain osmotic gradient between extravascular and intravascular compartments Plasma-volume expanders due to sodium concentrations Do not contain proteins (colloids) Contain fluids and electrolytes that are normally found in the body

13 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-4 Crystalloids

14 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont'd) Better for treating dehydration rather than expanding plasma volume Used as maintenance fluids –Compensate for insensible fluid losses –To replace fluids –To manage specific fluid and electrolyte disturbances –Promote urinary flow

15 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont'd) Normal saline (0.9% sodium chloride) Half normal saline (0.45% sodium chloride) Hypertonic saline (3% sodium chloride) Lactated Ringer’s D 5 W Plasma-Lyte

16 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont'd) Indications include: –Acute liver failure –Acute nephrosis –Burns –Shock –Renal dialysis –Many other conditions

17 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Crystalloids (cont'd) Side/adverse effects –May cause edema, especially peripheral or pulmonary –May dilute plasma proteins, reducing COP –Effects may be short-lived –Many other effects

18 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids Increase COP Move fluid from interstitial compartment to plasma compartment (when plasma protein levels are low) –Dextran 40 or 70 (a glucose solution) –Hetastarch (synthetic, derived from cornstarch) –5% or 25% albumin (from human donors)

19 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids (cont'd) Indications –Treat a wide variety of conditions –Superior to crystalloids in PV expansion, but more expensive

20 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Colloids (cont'd) Side effects/adverse effects Usually safe Disadvantages –May cause altered coagulation, resulting in bleeding –Have no clotting factors or oxygen-carrying capacity –Few others

21 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products Oxygen-carrying resuscitation fluids Only class of fluids that are able to carry oxygen Increase tissue oxygenation Increase plasma volume Most expensive and least available fluid because they require human donors

22 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-7 Blood Products

23 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont'd) Increase COP and PV –Pull fluid from extravascular space into intravascular space (plasma expanders) –RBC products also carry oxygen –Increase body’s supply of various products (such as clotting factors, hemoglobin)

24 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont'd) Indications Cryoprecipitate and plasma protein factors (PPF) –Management of acute bleeding (>50% slow blood loss or 20% acutely) Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) –Increase clotting factor levels in patients with demonstrated deficiency (coagulation disorders)

25 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products (cont'd) Indications PRBCs and whole blood –To increase oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with anemia, substantial hemoglobin deficits, and for blood loss >25% of total blood volume

26 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Table 26-9 Suggested guidelines for blood products: management of bleeding

27 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Fluids and Electrolytes: Blood Products Side/adverse effects –Incompatibility with recipient’s immune system –Transfusion reaction –Anaphylaxis –Transmission of pathogens to recipient (hepatitis, HIV)

28 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes Principal ECF electrolytes –Sodium cations (NA + ) –Chloride cations (Cl + ) Principal ICF electrolyte –Potassium (K + ) Others –Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus

29 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium Most abundant positively charged electrolyte inside cells 95% of body’s potassium is intracellular Potassium content outside of cells ranges from 3.5 to 5 mEq/L Potassium levels are critical to normal body function

30 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Potassium obtained from foods –Fruit and fruit juices, fish, vegetables, poultry, meats, dairy products Excess dietary potassium excreted via kidneys –Impaired kidney function leads to higher serum levels, possibly toxicity

31 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Potassium supplements ACE inhibitors Renal failure Excessive loss from cells Potassium-sparing diuretics Burns Trauma Metabolic acidosis Hyperaldosteronism Hyperkalemia: excessive serum potassium serum potassium level >5 mEq/L

32 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Alkalosis Corticosteroids Crash diets Diarrhea Ketoacidosis Burns Loop and thiazide diuretics Vomiting Malabsorption Large amounts of licorice Hypokalemia: deficiency of potassium serum potassium level <3.5 mEq/L Excessive potassium loss (rather than poor dietary intake)

33 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Box 26-1 Symptoms of Hypokalemia

34 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Potassium is responsible for: –Muscle contraction –Transmission of nerve impulses –Regulation of heartbeat –Maintenance of acid-base balance –Isotonicity –Many other functions in the body

35 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Main indication –Treatment or prevention of potassium depletion when dietary means are inadequate

36 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Side/adverse effects Oral preparations –Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, GI bleeding, ulceration IV administration –Pain at injection site –Phlebitis Excessive administration –Hyperkalemia –Toxic effects

37 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Potassium (cont'd) Hyperkalemia –Muscle weakness, paresthesia, paralysis, cardiac rhythm irregularities (leading to possible ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest) Treatment –IV sodium bicarbonate, calcium salts, dextrose with insulin –Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) or hemodialysis to remove excess potassium

38 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium Most abundant positively charged electrolyte outside cells Normal concentration outside cells is 135 to 145 mEq/L Maintained through dietary intake of sodium chloride –Salt, fish, meats, foods flavored or preserved with salt

39 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont'd) Hyponatremia: sodium loss or deficiency; serum levels <135 mEq/L Symptoms –Lethargy, stomach cramps, hypotension, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures Causes –Same causes as hypokalemia; also excessive perspiration (during hot weather or physical work), prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, or renal disorders

40 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont'd) Hypernatremia: sodium excess; serum levels >145 mEq/L Symptoms –Water retention (edema), hypertension –Red, flushed skin; dry, sticky mucous membranes, increased thirst, elevated temperature, decreased urine output Causes –Poor renal excretion stemming from kidney malfunction; inadequate water consumption and dehydration

41 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont'd) Sodium is responsible for: –Control of water distribution –Fluid and electrolyte balance –Osmotic pressure of body fluids –Participates in acid-base balance

42 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont'd) Main indication Treatment or prevention of sodium depletion when dietary measures are inadequate Mild –Treated with oral sodium chloride tablets and/or fluid restriction Severe –Treated with intravenous normal saline or lactated Ringer’s solution

43 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium (cont'd) Sodium: side/adverse effects Oral administration –Nausea, vomiting, cramps IV administration –Venous phlebitis

44 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Nursing Implications Assess baseline fluid volume and electrolyte status Assess baseline vital signs Assess skin, mucous membranes, daily weights, I&O Before giving potassium, assess ECG Assess for contraindications to therapy Assess transfusion history Establish venous access as needed

45 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Nursing Implications Monitor serum electrolyte levels during therapy Monitor infusion rate, appearance of fluid or solution, infusion site Observe for infiltration, other complications of IV therapy

46 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Nursing Implications Parenteral infusions of potassium must be monitored closely –Rate should not exceed 20 mEq/hour –NEVER give as an IV bolus or undiluted Oral forms of potassium –Must be diluted in water or fruit juice to minimize GI distress or irritation –Monitor for complaints of nausea, vomiting, GI pain, or GI bleeding

47 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Nursing Implications Administer colloids slowly, has potential for fluid volume excess Monitor for fluid overload and possible heart failure For blood products, follow administration procedures closely PRBCs should be used along with 0.9 NS Monitor closely for signs of transfusion reactions

48 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Signs of Transfusion Reaction

49 Mosby items and derived items © 2005, 2002 by Mosby, Inc. Nursing Implications Monitor for therapeutic response –Normal lab values RBCs, WBC, H&H, electrolyte levels –Improved fluid volume status –Increased tolerance to activities Monitor for adverse effects


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