Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the Sequoias Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. 19 The Urinary System: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Exchanges Affecting Plasma Content Figure 19.1

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Concept of Balance Figure 19.2

4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Kidneys in Maintaining Balance Water Sodium Potassium Calcium Acid-base

5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Exchange of Water Intake Gastrointestinal tract Metabolism Output Insensible loss Sweating Gastrointestinal tract Kidneys

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Factors Affecting Water Balance Note: Kidneys can only minimize fluid loss Intake is required in order to add fluids Figure 19.3

7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Osmolarity of Fluids Osmolarity of body fluids = 300 mOsm No osmotic force for water to move between fluid compartments Kidneys compensate for changes in osmolarity of extracellular fluid by regulating water reabsorption Water reabsorption passive Based on osmotic gradient

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Water Reabsorption Proximal tubules 70% filtered water is reabsorbed Not regulated Distal tubules and Collecting ducts Most remaining water is reabsorbed Regulated by ADH

9 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Sodium Reabsorption Figure 19.4

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Sodium Reabsorption Na + is actively transported across basolateral membrane, this establishes an osmotic gradient for water reabsorption Figure 19.4

11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Water Reabsorption Figure 19.5

12 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The Medullary Osmotic Gradient Figure 19.6

13 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Counter-Current Multiplier in the Loop of Henle Osmotic gradient established by counter-current multiplier Dependent on loop of Henle Ascending Limb Impermeable to water Active transport of Na +, Cl -, and K + Descending Limb Permeable to water No transport of Na +, Cl -, or K +

14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Counter-Current Multiplier Figure 19.7

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Vasa Recta: Countercurrent Exchanger Figure 19.8

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Regulated Water Reabsorption When membrane of late DCT and CD is impermeable to water Water cannot leave the tubules No water reabsorption More water is excreted in urine Figure 19.9a

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 19.9b Regulated Water Reabsorption ADH stimulates the insertion of water channels (aquaporin- 2) into apical membrane Water is reabsorpbed by osmosis Maximum urine concentration is 1400 mOsm

18 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Obligatory Water Loss Minimum volume of water that must be excreted in the urine per day Max osmolarity urine = 1400 mOsm Some solute must be excreted Minimum water loss = 440 mL Obligatory water loss Necessary to eliminate non-reabsorbed solutes

19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Effects of ADH on Principal Cells Figure 19.10

20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Response: Increase in ECF Osmolarity Figure 19.11

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Response: Decrease in Blood Volume Figure 19.12

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Proximal Tubule Sodium Reabsorption Coupled to the reabsorption of other solutes Figure 19.13a

23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 19.13b Distal Tubule Sodium Reabsorption Coupled to the secretion of K + and H +

24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Effects of Aldosterone Figure 19.14

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Figure 19.15

26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Angiotensin II Effect on MAP Figure Adrenal cortexSystemic arteriolesPosterior pituitaryHypothalamic neurons Aldosterone secretion Sodium reabsorption in late distal tubules and collecting ducts Water reabsorption in late distal tubules and collecting ducts Extracellular fluid osmolarity Thirst stimulationADH secretionVasoconstriction MAP Plasma volume Kidneys Angiotensin II

27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Stimulation of Renin Release Figure Baroreceptor reflex Sympathetic activity Afferent arteriole pressure GFR [Na + ] and [Cl – ] in distal tubules Macula densa Renin release Juxtaglomerular cells of afferent arteriole MAP Paracrine secretion

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Role of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Figure 19.18

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. PCT: Potassium Reabsorption Figure 19.19a

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. DCT: Potassium Secretion Figure 19.19b

31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Routes of Calcium Exchange Figure 19.20

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. PTH and Calcium Balance Figure [PTH] in plasma PTH secretion [1,25-(OH 2 )D 3 ] in plasma Ca 2+ resorptionPhosphate reabsorption Calcium excretion in urine Ca 2+ reabsorption1,25-(OH 2 )D 3 activation Parathyroid glands Kidneys Ca 2+ absorption KidneysGastrointestinal tract Bone [Ca 2+ ] in plasma Negative feedback Negative feedback

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Role of Vitamin D Figure Conversion of vitamin D 3 to 25-OH D 3 Vitamin D 3 absorption7-dehydrocholesterol Sunlight [Vitamin D 3 ] in plasma [25-OH D 3 ] in plasma [1,25-(OH 2 )D 3 ] in plasma Conversion of 25-OH D 3 to 1,25-(OH 2 )D 3 Liver Kidney Ca 2+ absorption KidneysGastrointestinal tract [Ca 2+ ] in plasma [PTH] in plasma [Ca 2+ ] in plasma Skin Negative feedback

34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Inputs and Outputs of Acid Figure 19.23

35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Response to Decrease in pH Figure 19.24

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Bicarbonate Reabsorption Figure 19.25

37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Hydrogen Ion Secretion Figure 19.26

38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Glutamine Metabolism in the PCT Figure 19.27

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Metabolic Alkalosis Cause: decreased H + independent of CO 2 Compensation: respiratory and renal (unless renal problem) Respiratory compensation Decrease ventilation  increase CO 2 Renal compensation Decrease H + secretion Decrease HCO 3 - reabsorption Decrease synthesis of new bicarbonate

40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Acid-Base Disturbances/Compensation Figure Arterial pH Acidosis pH < 7.35 Alkalosis pH > 7.45 P CO 2 < 40 mm Hg Respiratory compensation Metabolic acidosis [HCO 3 – ] < 24 mM [HCO 3 – ] > 24 mM Renal compensation Respiratory acidosis P CO 2 > 40 mm Hg P CO 2 > 40 mm Hg Respiratory compensation Metabolic alkalosis [HCO 3 – ] > 24 mM [HCO 3 – ] < 24 mM Renal compensation Respiratory alkalosis P CO 2 < 40 mm Hg OR


Download ppt "PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THIRD EDITION Cindy L. Stanfield | William J. Germann PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by W.H. Preston, College of the."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google