2.Bases 2.BasesMonovalent Polyvalent Strong Weak Basic oxides – base anhydrides Oxides of metals 3.Salts 3.SaltsStrong electrolytes!!!
Important Facts HCl, HNO 3 – strong acids 100% dissociation (no equilibrium, no K) HCl H + + Cl – 0%HCl, 100% H +, 100% Cl – H + is a proton, a subatomic particle and does not exist alone in solution Really H + + H 2 O H 3 O + (hydronium ion) HNO 3 + H 2 O NO 3 – + H 3 O +
Strong electrolytes weak electrolytes conc. of ionic form total concentration = ≤ 1 Degree of dissociation: Strong electrolyte: 1 Weak electrolyte: < 0.5
_ + H H H+H+ H HH H HH O OO O Cl - + _ Conductivity of electrolytes
+ Na + OH - H O H H O H H O H H O H Conductivity = 1 ( = resistance) 1 cm V = 1 cm 3
= specific conductivity cc. NaCl NH 4 Cl H 2 SO 4
Equivalent conductivity: Conductivity of equivalent amount of electrolyte = V V = equivalent dilution in cm 3 inf = vv v = inf =
cc. ( ) Strong acid Weak acid Weak base Strong base Salt