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Electrolytes. Are substances that form positive(+) and negative (-) ions in water Conduct an electric current.

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Presentation on theme: "Electrolytes. Are substances that form positive(+) and negative (-) ions in water Conduct an electric current."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electrolytes

2 Are substances that form positive(+) and negative (-) ions in water Conduct an electric current

3 Electrolytes in the Body Carry messages send to and from the brain as electrical signals Maintain cellular function with the correct concentrations electrolytes

4 Strong Electrolytes are 100% ionized salts H 2 O 100%ions NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O CaBr 2 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + 2Br - (aq) acids H 2 O HCl(g) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq)

5 Weak electrolytes Most of the solute exists as molecules in solution Only a few solute particles produce ions HF + H 2 O  H 3 O + (aq) + F - (aq) acid NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) base

6 Classification of electrolytes 1.Acids 1.AcidsBinary acids Ternary acids (oxyacids) Thioacids Monoprotic acids Polyprotic acids Strong acids Weak acids

7 2.Bases 2.BasesMonovalent Polyvalent Strong Weak Basic oxides – base anhydrides Oxides of metals 3.Salts 3.SaltsStrong electrolytes!!!

8 Important Facts HCl, HNO 3 – strong acids 100% dissociation (no equilibrium, no K) HCl  H + + Cl – 0%HCl, 100% H +, 100% Cl – H + is a proton, a subatomic particle and does not exist alone in solution Really H + + H 2 O  H 3 O + (hydronium ion) HNO 3 + H 2 O  NO 3 – + H 3 O +

9 Strong electrolytes weak electrolytes conc. of ionic form total concentration  =  ≤  1 Degree of dissociation:  Strong electrolyte:   1 Weak electrolyte:  < 0.5

10 _ + H H H+H+ H HH H HH O OO O Cl - + _     Conductivity of electrolytes

11 + Na + OH - H O H H O H H O H H O H  Conductivity = 1 (  = resistance) 1 cm V = 1 cm 3

12  = specific conductivity  cc. NaCl NH 4 Cl H 2 SO 4

13 Equivalent conductivity:  Conductivity of equivalent amount of electrolyte  =  V V = equivalent dilution in cm 3  inf  = vv  v =   inf = 

14 cc. ( )  Strong acid Weak acid Weak base Strong base Salt


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