Composition of body fluids In addition to water, the body contains solutes; substances the separate in solution and conduct electrical current. Concentration of solutes in solution=osmolality or osmolarity. May by electrolytes or non-electrolytes: Cations(+), Na, K Anions (-), CL, HCO-3 (bicarbonate), PO Non-electrolytes (glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin)
Sodium Serum levels; 135-145mEq/L Responsible for water balance and determination of plasma osmolality Cation+,plays a major role in –ECF volume and concentration ( movement of Cl- closely associated with Na+) Imbalances can exist in different volume states : euvolemia (normal volume), hypovolemia (low volume), hypervolemia (increased volume)
Calcium (Ca 2 +) Function: transmission of nerve impulses, muscle/myocardial contraction, blood clotting, formation of teeth and bones Balance controlled by PTH, calcitonin, vitamin D Obtained from diet, daily need: 1-1.5G/d More than 99% combined with phosphorus and concentrated in skeletal system Inverse relationship with phosphorus Serum Level:8.5-10.5 mg/dl
IV Fluids (Cont’d) Hypotonic –More water than electrolytes Pure water lyses RBCs –Water moves from ECF to ICF by osmosis –Usually maintenance fluids Isotonic –Expands only ECF –No net loss or gain from ICF
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