Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Chemical and Biological Warfare Presented by CPT Michael A. Ladd SGT Lisa Lyon United States Army Chemical School."— Presentation transcript:
1 An Overview of Chemical and Biological Warfare Presented by CPT Michael A. Ladd SGT Lisa Lyon United States Army Chemical School
2 AgendaChemical WarfareBiological WarfareQuestion and Answer Period
3 Brief History of Chemical Warfare 1915 Ypres, France (WWI)No major military use of chem in WWII, but research completed by GermansSome use of chem during Vietnam (Agent Orange, BZ, CS, etc.)Use of nerve agent during Iran/Iraq WarGulf WarTokyo Subway Attack
4 EXERPT FROM:THE HUMAN COST, The Aum Shinrikyo victims have their say By Kavitha Rao and Murakami Mutsuko / TokyoOhashi Kenji, 41:“When he boarded the train, he saw one male passenger slumped in his seat and a woman doubled over. He sensed a strange smell, "sweet as if something was rotten.” Ohashi took a seat and fell into a brief sleep. When he woke up, he was thirsty and started coughing. His legs began trembling.Everything was black around him and he could hardly breathe. He was rushed to hospital, where he stayed for 12 days.”
5 CHEMICAL AGENTS DEFINED: “Any chemical substance which is intended foruse in Military and Civilian Operations to kill,seriously injure or incapacitate man because ofits physiological effects.”NOTE: Liquid AC can penetrate the skin but, because AC has a high LCt50 and because liquid AC is not likely to be encountered in the field, protective clothing is required only in unusual situations.
6 PERSISTENCY OF AGENTS PERSISTANT (“P-Chem”) And General description of how long a chemical agent remains dangerous after it’s release / employment. Two categories:PERSISTANT (“P-Chem”)AndNON-PERSISTANT (“NP-Chem”)
7 PERSISTENT CHEMICAL AGENTS Long-Duration Agents (hours or days) used to:Deny terrain (channelize attacking forces, protect flanks, defend avenues of approach)Contaminate terrain & material (roads, key terrain or facilities)Degrade efficiency (forcing extended operations in protective posture)Neutralize defending strong-points
8 PERSISTENT CHEMICAL AGENTS Usually appear as an oily, thick liquid in pools, scattered droplets, or puddlesCollect in low-lying areasMix with topsoil, mud & standing water, easily spread by traffic (“Gross Contamination”)High contact hazardLow to medium vapor hazard (depending on temperature)
9 NONPERSISTENT CHEMICAL AGENTS Short-duration agents (minutes or less than one hour in open air conditions) used to:Create favorable fighting conditionsProduce casualtiesDegrade or suppressOccupy without need of decontamination
10 NONPERSISTENT CHEMICAL AGENTS Usually a colorless, odorless (or faint odor) gas or vaporSame physical behavior as smoke or fog- travel in clouds with prevailing wind currents, weather conditions will determine spreadWeather away easily- not a source of Gross ContaminationHigh vapor & contact hazardBlood, choking, psychochemical and nerve agents are stockpiled in the largest quantities, highest probability of acquisition by terrorist groupsPresent highest “payoff” in terms of mass casualties in population centers
11 CLASSIFICATION OF TOXIC MILITARY CHEMICAL AGENTS BloodBlisterNerveChokingVomitingIncapacitating
13 BloodBLOOD AGENTS: Poisons enzyme cytochrome oxidase thus blocking the use of oxygen in the cells.
14 Physiological Effects BLOOD AGENTS PREVENT CELL RESPIRATION AND THE TRANSFER OF OXYGEN FROM THE BLOOD. OVER- OXYGENATED BLOOD CAUSES CHANGE IN COLOR (Pale to Bluish-tinge visible on the skin).
15 Physiological Effects EYESModerate toxicityRESPIRATORY SYS.ENTERS BODY AS VAPOR ORGASSKINNot readily absorbed
16 CATEGORIES OF BLOOD AGENTS ACHYDROGEN CYANIDECKCYANOGEN CHLORIDEAbsorbed primarily by breathing
17 AC CHARACTERISTICS Appearance: Colorless liquid or gas Odor: Bitter AlmondsProtection:Protective MaskSee Note:
18 AC CHARACTERISTICS Rate of Action…..Rapid. Death w/in 15 min. Persistency…..Short. Dissipates quickly in air.Use Designation: Quick acting casualty agent.
19 AC SYMPTOMS: HIGH CONCENTRATIONS Increased heart rateViolent convulsionsBreathing stops 1 minHeart stops in 2 min.
20 AC SYMPTOMS: MODERATE CONCENTRATIONS DizzinessNauseaHeadache***All appear rapidlyALSO:ConvulsionsDeath
21 AC SYMPTOMS LONG EXPOSURE LACK OF OXYGEN TO THE MUSCLESIRRATIONALITYCOMA AND CONVULSIONS
22 CK CHARACTERISTICSAppearance: Colorless, highly volatile liquid or gasOdor: Pungent, biting; may go unnoticedRate of Action: Very rapid. Immediate intense irritationProtection: Mask (may damage filters)
23 CK Persistency: Short (may persist in jungles) Use Designation: Quick acting
24 CK SYMPTOMS CK IS CONVERTED BY THE BODY TO AC WITH IRRITATING EFFECTS LIKE CS*Immediate intense irritation (nose/throat)*Coughing, tight chest,heavy water flow from the eyes*Dizziness and unconsciousness*Breathing may stop/Death*Convulsions, involuntary urination/defecate.
25 FIRST AID - BLOOD AGENTS Continue Normal ActivitiesGeneral Rule of thumb- after 5 min of exposure, anyone still breathing / ambulatory requires no first aidSeek Medical AttentionOxygen therapyKeep warm and rested
26 BlisterBLISTER AGENTS: These agents cause inflammation, blisters and general destruction of tissues. Vulnerable areas include the eyes, mucous membranes and respiratory tract.
27 MUSTARDS ARSENICALS URTICANTS BLISTER AGENTS All Blister Agents are PERSISTENTMUSTARDSARSENICALSURTICANTS
28 ACTION ON THE BODY PHYSIOLOGICAL Damage ANY TISSUE they come in contact with, specific damage to:EYESLUNGS and RESPIRATORY SYSTEMCauses Vomiting & Diarrhea
29 ACTION ON THE BODY Penetration of the body Eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive tracts.Symptoms: There are distinct differences among each type.
30 MUSTARD AGENT CHARACTERISTICS (H - HD - HN - HN1 - HN2 - HN3)APPEARANCE (20 deg C / 68 deg F)HD…colorless to pale yellowHN SERIES…dark liquidFreezing point of Mustard Agents is deg F
32 CHARACTERISTICS Vapor Density: 5 to 7 times heavier than air Body Effects…irritation to eyes, tissues, and respiratory tract.Rate of Effectiveness….DelayedDuration…..Several days under normal conditions
33 CHARACTERISTICS Protection LEVEL A OR MOPP IV Persistency Depends on quantity. Weeks to months in cold.UseDelayed actingFirst AidDo not break blisters; if in eyes use water; decon with M258A1/M291
34 PHASES OF HD LATENT PHASE 4 - 6 HOURS ERYTHEMA PHASE Red Skin with itchingVESSICATION PHASEBlisters from hoursNECROSISTissues die and decay
35 SYMPTOMS FOR MUSTARD AGENTS EYES- most susceptible. Immediate burning sensation, swelling of tissue 1-12 hours, burns & lacerationsSKIN- affected more by hot, humid weather & direct contact (e.g., sitting / standing in agent)Lungs- delayed action (days to weeks), cumulative dose poison, increased respiratory infections
36 FIRST AID FOR MUSTARD AGENTS IMMEDIATE & Continuous Flushing of the Eyes: 86% of all Blister Agent Casualties exhibit contamination in the eyesTriage- Note exposure possibility for evaluation at Treatment Center: 75% of all Blister Agent Casualties experience latent onset (18-36 hours)effects upon the respiratory tract
39 ARSENICAL AGENT SYMPTOMS Immediate pain (within 30 seconds)Irritation of eyesReddening of the skin (within 30 minutes)Blisters appear (within 48 hours)Systemic poisoning
40 ARSENICALS Primary Hazard: Eyes & respiratory tract (vapors) Skin (direct contact)Digestive system (ingestion)Rate of Action:Eye effects & stinging sensation (immediate)Prompt, burning redness within 30 minutesBlisters on 1st or 2nd dayPain / necrosis more severe than with mustardsNOTE: BECAUSE ARSENICALS VAPORS ARE SO IRRITATING, PUTTING YOUR MASK ON WILL BE OF THE UTMOST CONCERN. ENSURE ALLSOLDIERS AROUND YOU HAVE DONNED THEIR MASK AND HELPTHOSE THAT CAN'T.
42 URTICANTS Rate of Action: Primary Hazards: Immediate Eyes, nose & respiratory tract (vapors)Skin (direct contact)Digestive tract (digestion)SYMPTOMSIMMEDIATEStrong irritation of mucous membranesStinging sensation (bee sting)Blanching of skinEyes, nose & skinSurrounded by reddening (within 30 secs)Wheal forms (in about 30 mins)Blanched area turns brown (24 hrs)Sloughs off (couple weeks)
44 NerveNERVE AGENTS: Inhibits cholinesterase enzymes thus allowing acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) to collect at its various sites of action. Can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed through the skin.
45 ACTION ON THE BODY (PHYSIOLOGICAL) Nerve Agents are potent inhibitors of the enzyme cholinesterase. This inhibition permits the build-up in the body of Acetylcholine, a muscle and nerve ending stimulator. The major effects will be on skeletal muscles, parasympathetic end organs, and the central nervous system.
46 ACTION ON THE BODY Penetration Eyes: Symptoms appear in 2-3 minutes. Kills nearly as rapidly as respiratory exposure.Respiratory System: Symptoms appear in 2-5 minutes, lethal dose kills in less than 15 minutes.Skin: Symptoms occur slowly; Lethal doses 1-2 hours; Sweating and tremors may occur.
48 NERVE AGENT SYMPTOMS (SEVERE) STRANGE/CONFUSED BEHAVIORGURGLING SOUNDS WHEN BREATHINGSEVERELY PINPOINTED PUPILSRED EYES WITH TEARINGVOMITINGSEVERE MUSCULAR TWITCHINGLOSS OF BLADDER CONTROLCONVULSIONSUNCONSCIOUSNESS
49 TABUN - GA Non-Persistent Nerve Agent Appearance…..brownish to colorless liquidOdor…..faintly fruity; none when pureVapor density: times heavier than air.
50 GAPersistency…..depends on weather and munitions; 1-2 days for heavily splashed liquids.Use Designation: Quick acting casualty agentRate of Action: Very rapid; w/in 15 min for lethal doseProtectionLEVEL A OR MOPP IV; clothing gives off vapor
51 SARIN - GB Non-Persistent Nerve Agent Appearance: colorless liquid Odor: almost none in pure stateVapor density: times heavier than air
52 GB Persistency…..same as for GA Use Designation, Quick acting casualty agentRate of Action, Very RapidProtection Required: LEVEL A OR MOPP 4 - See GA
53 SOMAN - GD Non Persistent Nerve Agent Appearance…..colorless liquid Odor…..fruity; impurities give camphorVapor density: times heavier than air
54 GD Persistency: same as GA/GB only evaporates at slower rate Use Designation: Quick acting casualty agentRate of Action Very Rapid.Protection Required: LEVEL A OR MOPP 4. See GA
56 VX VX is a PERSISTENT Nerve Agent Appearance: Colorless to Amber liquidOdor: NONEVapor density: 9.2 times heavier than air
57 VX Persistency: Heavily Splashed Liquids May Last For Long Periods Use Designation, Quick acting casualty agentRate of Action and Protection requirements are the same as the other nerve agents.
58 FIRST AID- NERVE AGENTS Nerve Agent Antidote Kit (NAAK Mark 1). The NAAK Mark 1 contains the AtroPen auto-injector (2mg of atropine) and the Pralidoxime Chloride auto-injector (600mg of pralidoxime chloride) in a compact package which facilitates emergency use.1 to 3 injections, depending on level of symptomsConvulsion Antidote for Nerve Agents (CANA). CANA is an auto-injector which contains 2ml of diazepam. It is to be used only as buddy-aid, never self injected
59 ChokingCHOKING AGENTS: Attack lung tissue (dry-land drowning). Choking sensation as a result of nose and throat irritation.
60 CHOKING AGENTS CG PHOSGENE Physiological Action: Effects are exerted on the lungs resulting in damage to small blood vessels. Anoxia is the cause of death due to flooded air sacs. Symptoms appear three to four hours after exposure and death within 24 hours.
61 PHOSGENE Odor: Green corn, grass, or new-mowed hay Protection: Protective Mask
62 PHOSGENE Persistency: Short, but may collect in low areas. Rate of Action: Delayed. Immediate symptoms in high concentrations. Up to 3 hours for low levels.Symptoms: Tearing, soar throat, coughing, wheezing; Pulmonary Edema in 2-6 hours, nausea, vomiting and gastric pains are common
63 PHOSGENE First-Aid: SELF / BUDDY Aid : 1) Mask, 2) Continue with normal activities.3) Keep personnel quiet, and casualties should be kept only comfortable warm.4) Seek medical help.
64 CHOKING AGENTS Protection Required: Decontamination: Dissemination Tested & Approved Protective MaskDecontamination:Aeration (confined areas)No decon in open air environmentChange contaminated clothingDissemination[Not Limited To]Aircraft spray
65 FIRST AID-CHOKING AGENT EMS: No standard first aid kit In the ambulance:ABC’sO2 monitoringNo exertionAdvanced ProvidersIV FluidsBronchodilatorsNo Diuretics
69 CHARACTERISTICS OF INCAPACITATING TEARING AGENTS THEY CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MENTAL EFFECTS THAT LEAD TO TEMPORARY DISABILITY.THE LETHAL DOSE IS MANY TIMES GREATER THAN THE INCAPACITATING DOSE.
70 TEARING AGENT CHARACTERISTICS (CA / CS / CN / CNB /CNC / CNS /CR / PS Persistency: Short (CN Series), varies with othersPhysical States: (20 deg C / 68 deg F)Yellow or Colorless solid, liquid, or powderOdors:Soured fruit or pepper- like or apple blossoms
71 TEARING AGENTS Primary Hazard: Respiratory Rate of Action: Immediate Symptoms: Effects last 5-10 minutes after removal from areaImmediate burning sensation of the eyesCoughingDifficulty breathingInvoluntary closing of eyesStinging sensation on moist skin
72 TEAR AGENTS Protection Required: Tested & approved protective mask Secure normal clothing at neck, wrists and anklesDecontamination:Aeration (cool shower may help)
73 TEARING AGENTS First Aid: None required (aeration) Exception: individuals wearing contact lenses at the time of exposure- remove them ASAP!Medical Treatment:Prompt irrigation of the eyesMechanical removal of agentErythmea (calamine / topical corticosteroid)Blisters (treat as 2nd degree burns)Secondary infections (treat with antibiotics)
74 VomitingVOMITING AGENTS: produce strong pepper-like irritation of the eyes and lacrimation and violent uncontrollable sneezing, cough.
75 VOMITING AGENTS CHARACTERISTICS DA/DC/DM Persistency: Non-persistent (aerosol)Physical States: (at 20 deg C / 68 deg F)DA - White to brown solidDC - White to pink solidDM - Yellow to green
76 VOMITING AGENTS Odors: DA - None DC - Bitter almonds / garlic mixture DM - NonePrimary Hazard: RespiratoryRate of Action: Very rapid (30 sec - 2 mins)
77 VOMITING AGENTSSymptoms: last from 30 minutes to several hours after removal from contaminated areaIrritation of eyes and mucuous membranesViscuous dischargeSneezing & coughingAcute pain & tightness in chestSevere headacheNauseaVomiting
78 VOMITING AGENTS First Aid: Mask Let agent take its course Vigorous exercise / physical activityMedical Treatment:Few should require treatmentSymptomatic reliefPepto-Bismol / Maalox / etcAspirin (headaches / general discomfort)
80 BRIEF SUMMARY OF AGENTS CHOKINGNERVEBLOODBLISTERINCAPACITATING
81 DECONTAMINATIONM291 Skin Decon Kit. Used for skin and equipment decontamination. Is non-toxic, eliminating the need for trainers.M295 Decon Kit, Individual Equipment (DKIE). The M295 employs sorptive resin technology; consists of a pouch containing four individual wipedown mitts each of which is within a soft, protective packet. The pouch assembly is designed to fit comfortably within a pocket. Used to decon personnel equipment
82 DECONTAMINATIONEXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Water, fog, foam, CO2. Avoid using extinguishing methods that will cause splashing or spreading. INCOMPATIBLES: Negligible on brass, steel, aluminum
84 Chemical Detection and Identification Suite System Response Time Training Needed ResultsDetector paper Seconds Few minutes Detects presence of liquid nerve or blister agents by typeElectronic field Seconds One-two hours Detects presence of nerve or blister instruments agent vaporsWet chemistry kits Minutes One hour or less Identifies specific, selected chemical agents (nerve, blood, blister)Colorimetric 4-8 Minutes One hour or less Identifies/quantifies specific industrial chemicals, detects nerve and blister agents by typeGC/MS Minutes - Hours One-two weeks for Identifies/quantifies specific chemical trained technician agents (liquid or vapor)
85 Chemical Detector Papers M9 and M8 chemical agent detector papersOnly for liquids/agentsProne to false positivesBest for initial reconOther chemical detector papersVGHL
86 Chemical Identification Kits “Wet chemistry” chemical agent identification kitsVapors onlyGood specificityColorimetric tube sets
87 M256A1 Kit Capabilities: Limitations: Best uses: Detects nerve, blister, blood agentsDetects below IDLH for most agentsLimitations:Takes 15 minutes to useHand manipulationsDoes not detect choking agentsBest uses:Initial reconVerification of chemical detection
88 Colorimetric Tubes Capabilities: Limitations: Best uses: Detect, identify family of chemicals: nerve and blister agentsIdentify, quantify (ppm) choking and blood agentsSampling unknown agentsLimitations:Hand manipulations8 specific tubes requiredBest uses:Industrial chemicalsVerification of chemical detection
90 Chemical Agent Monitor Capabilities:Point detection of nerve, blister agentsDetects down to IDLHSemi-quantitative indicationLimitations:Many false positive readingsNot a “survey” deviceMay become supersaturatedBest uses:Detection of contaminated areasCheck at decontamination corridor
91 Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometer Portable gas chromatographPortable GC/MSLaboratory analysis
92 Detect / Sample / Handle Proper procedures are of vital importance to:Protect RespondersTreat VictimsPrevent Spread of ContaminationAlert Supporting AgenciesGather EvidenceThroughout every step of the response cycle, from Initial Assessment to Transportation to Hospitals
93 Chemical Detection Process Observe signs and symptomsDon appropriate protectionInitial entry (radiation; pH paper; O2, LEL, CO; PID)Chemical agent detector papers (M8, M9)Chemical detector instruments (CAM)Detection kits (M256A1), colorimetric tubesSamples for GC/MS
94 Chemical Agent Sampling Air samplesLiquid samplesSolid samplesQuality of sample
95 Current Proliferation NuclearBiologicalChemical.Number of Countries5141525Source:
100 What is Biological Warfare? Warfare involving the use of living organisms (as disease germs) or their toxic products against men, animals, or plants.“Webster’s” definitionBiological warfare is a frightening term, especially now when America is faced with an enemy that seems more than capable, and more importantly, willing to use this type of warfare.Although we are focused on the mass infection of humans with this type of warfare, plants and animals are at risk as well. Using biological warfare on crops can destroy a towns, cities or even a countries harvest. Farm animals can be infected causing economic hardships. Ex/ mad cow disease. Imagine if America’s cattle was infected as Britains.
101 What are Biological Agents? Biological agents are the living organisms, or the toxins derived from, causing disease in man, animals or plants.BacteriaVirusToxinsBacteria - Ex/ plague, anthrax - we have all heard of bacteria. A house hold name is salmonella (a bacteria that causes food poisoning, usually from undercooked chicken).It is single-celled and asexual. When it enters the body it usually will target a specific area. Ex/ strep throat targets your esophagus. Bubonic plague targets the lymphnodes. Bacteria invade tissues, produce toxins, or both. Often specific tissues are targeted.Virus - Ex/ flu, colds, smallpox, hemorraghic fevers - we are all familiar with the word virus. We have all been infected at one point or another with a virus. Be it a cold or the chicken pox. Viruses require a host cell to reproduce. Often a specific host cell is needed.Toxins - Toxins are made from organic sources. Ex/ fire coral, venom, puffer fish, and bacteria. Botulism is common word. The bacteria is found in improperly canned foods and once in the body begins producing toxic wastes. This toxin is a neurotoxin and blocks the chemical messages in your nervous system.. Other toxins disrupt cellular function. Ex/ ricin, inhibits ricin inhibits ribosomes from making proteins.
102 How can they be disseminated? Biological agents can be disseminated in a variety of ways.MailClouds/Spray cansFood/waterSick people/animalsWhat to look for.Excessive postage. Excessive weight, lopsided or unevenIncorrect titles or titles without a nameMisspellings of common wordsOily stains,discolorations, odorsPoorly typed or written addresses, no return addressProtruding wires, aluminum foil other visual distractionsExcessive security materiel such as tape, stringMarked with restrictive endorsements/ confidential, personalCity or state postmark does not match return addressWhat to do:Do not open! Place in plastic bag and take to local authorities. Or cover with anything (clothing, paper, trash can) and do not remove cover.Leave area and do not let others near.Wash hands with soap and water.List all personnel who was in the area and may be infected.If leaked powder, do not try to clean it up. Cover it (clothing, paper, trash can).Leave area and keep others away. Call local police.Put contaminated clothing into a bag for proper disposal and shower ASAP.
103 Factors in Making Effective Bio Agents Availability and ease of production in sufficient quantities.Lethal or incapacitating effects in humans at achievable and deliverable doses.Appropriate particle size.Ease of dissemination.Stability (storage, weapons, environment)Susceptibility of target.
104 Selected Potential Agents AnthraxPlagueSmallpoxHemorrhagic FeversWhat have you heard of lately concerning the use of biological warfare?I am going to talk a little about these few agents.
105 Hemorrhagic Fevers Crimean-Congo, Hantavirus, Ebola, Yellow Fever Symptoms include fever, muscular pain, lack of strength.Full blown; shock and mucous membrane hemorrhage.Crimean-Congo - Ticks - Europe, Africa, Asia. Copious hemorrhage and highly infective nature via aerosol route. Qetta city in Pakistan outbreak in April 2001.Hantaviruses - Infected rodents excreta - Asia, Europe, possibly world wide.Ebola - unknown natural reservoir - Africa. (reston)Yellow Fever - mosquito - Tropical Africa, South America. Black vomit, jaundice.Targets vascular bed, causing microvascular damage and changing vascular permeability (causing internal bleeding). Full blown syndrome includes shock and mucous membrane hemorrhage (bleeding out every orifice) common complaints are fever, muscular pain, lack of strength. Victims melt in front of you, violent spasm of bloody vomit and defication shortly before death.Mortality from 5% - 20% in recognized cases to 50% - 90% in Ebola outbreaks in Africa.Treatment is supportive. Rplace lost fluids until body overcomes virus. Yellow fever vaccine. Other vaccines IND but not expected licensed in the near future.
106 Monkey infected with Ebola African victimVictim in isolation chamber
107 Small Pox Variola virus Small Pox: High transmissibility, globally eradicated in the 70’s.INCUBATION: DAYSSYMPTOMS: After incubation include fever, headache, neck and backaches.2-3 days rashes w/ lesions appear.3-4 weeks scabs develop and fall off.Treatment: Vaccine during first week of exposure, 30-35% mortality.According to the world health organization smallpox was eradicated from the world in US stopped vaccinating civilians in Immunity since that time has most likely become ineffective.Small pox has airborne transmissibility and is contagious through out the course of the disease until the scabs have fallen off. Contaminated clothing and bed spreads will also spread the disease. It is 30% fatal and there is no treatment after symptoms appear. An outbreak affecting people would cause a national emergency control measures due to transmissibility.First symptoms include fever, lack of strength, headaches and backaches. Severe abdominal pain and sometimes delirium. Rash appears on face, hands, legs and w/in 2 days postules form on outside and inside of the body. They are more numerous on appendages (often on soles of feet and palm of hands). Crust forms 8-9 days later, scabs separate leaving pigment free skin and scars.It is thought that only the CDC and Moscow repositories are the only existence for smallpox, but the possibility of another country attaining a sample exists.Vaccinia vaccine - not actual small pox virus but similar to cause resistance.
108 Last occurrence of endemic small pox in Somalia in 1977. Since, the only cases have been from laboratory incidents.
110 Plague Yersinia pestis PLAGUE- Bacteria - Inhalation, Insect bite.3 Clinical ManifestationsSYMPTOMS: (Occur within 1-6 days)Swelling of Lymph Nodes (bubonic)Nausea, fever,chills, vomiting, diarrhea.Respiratory Distress (pneumonic)Appendages turn black (Septicemic)Mortality: Bubonic 23%, Pneumonic and Septcemic near 100% if untreated.AD 541 Egypt, % of the population. Black Death (Great Pestilence) in million in China and million in Europe.3 manifestationsBubonic- flea bites, bacteria travels to nearest lymphnodes. Causes them to inflame and they are very painful. 23% fatal if left untreated.Pneumonic- nausea, fever, headache, weakness, cough producing bloody or watery sputum, respiratory distress. Very contagious as aerosolized when breathing. Progresses over 2-4 days, causes septic shock and death if not treated early.Septicemic- plague is in blood system traveling through out body- results from untreated bubonic and pneumonic forms. Fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea. Acral cyanosis and necrosis in appendages (turn black).Treatable with antibiotics early (streptomycin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol), no vaccine.
115 Anthrax Bacillus anthracis ANTHRAX- Spore-forming bacteria. Causes infection and depresses the Central Nervous System.ROUTE OF ENTRY: Inhalation, Ingestion, or skin lesions.SYMPTOMS: (Occur within 2-7 days)Cutaneous- boil like lesion forming into black ulcer.Inhalation- common cold then respiratory difficulty and shock.Gastrointestinal- inflammation of intestinal tract, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain.Mortality: % if untreatedAnthrax - Greek for coal, due to black scabs.Forms spores- hard outer coating when bacteria inactive that can last for years. Good for disseminating and storage. Reason for popularity with terrorists and that the inhalation form is generally fatal with out very early intervention of vaccine and antibiotics.Antibiotics kill the bacteria, vaccine interrupts the three edema toxins it produces from effecting CNS. Produces black mucous where it colonizes and moves through out blood stream.3 clinical manifestationsCutaneous- 95% of cases - bacterium enters through skin, cuts or abrasions. From cattle, sheep, wool, hides, leather. Begins with raised itchy bump and 1-2 days forms vesicle then a painless ulcer, black necrotic area in center. Lymph glands in area may swell. Rarely fatal when treated with antibiotics.Inhalation- Initial symptoms are cold/flu like, progressing into severe breathing difficulty and shock. Usually fatal.Gastrointestinal- from eating contaminated meat. Acute inflammation of intestinal area, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever followed by abdominal pain, vomiting blood and severe diarrhea % fatal.
116 Anthrax factory in Russia. Third world countries are more susceptible to Anthrax due to the mixing of human and animal populations.Anthrax is gram positive.Rhesus monkey blood infected with inhalation anthrax.
117 First lesion appears as an itchy bump (like an insect bite).
118 Turns into an ulcer with necrotic tissue in the center (dead).
119 95% of all Anthrax cases are Cutaneous. The scab will fall off and usually leave no scar.95% of all Anthrax cases are Cutaneous.
120 X-ray of Sverdlovsk victim showing the widened mediastinal X-ray of Sverdlovsk victim showing the widened mediastinal. Indicative of inhalation anthrax.
121 Lungs of victim of Sverdlovsk incident. Sverdlovsk Russia, Accidental release of Anthrax from a research lab. Caused 66 fatalities with 11 survivors.Had it been gastrointestinal the guts would be black.Lungs of victim of Sverdlovsk incident.