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Nervous System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones.

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Presentation on theme: "Nervous System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nervous System Galena Park High School A&P Instructor: Terry E. Jones

2 A. Coordination 1. Controls senses and stimuli between all systems. 2. Coordinates muscle movement Galena Park High School A&P I. Function

3 B.Protection 1. Senses danger and responds 2. Maintains electrical signals through out the body 3. Stimulates glandular secretions Galena Park High School A&P

4 C. Higher Level Thinking 1. Analyzes and formulates 2. Repository for vast amounts of knowledge Galena Park High School A&P

5 A. Central Nervous System 1. Brain and spinal cord 2. Acts as a sensory processing and command center Galena Park High School A&P II. Physical Organization

6 B. Peripheral Nervous System 1. Nerves leaving the spinal cord 2. Location of sensory neurons 3. Transmits impulses to organs and glands Galena Park High School A&P

7 A.Afferent Division 1. Moves impulses from sensory cells to the brain a. Somatic Sensors-from skin, skeletal and joints b. Visceral Sensors from organs Galena Park High School A&P III.Functional Organization Peripheral Nervous System

8 B. Efferent Division (motor) 1. Carries impulses from brain to the organs and muscles 2. The impulse creates a response or a motor response Galena Park High School A&P

9 C. Sub-divisions of the Motor Division 1. Voluntary system a. Mostly skeletal Muscle b. Can be controlled by our actions Galena Park High School A&P

10 2. Involuntary system a. Cardiac Muscle b. Smooth Muscle c. We do not control them. They are controlled by the brain Galena Park High School A&P

11 3. Parts of the Involuntary system a. Sympathetic –generally maintains activities of systems at rest or doing natural tasks b. Parasympathetic – generally reacts to stress when systems out of balance c. Both work in opposition to each other Galena Park High School A&P

12 A. Neuroglia (all types of nerve cells) 1. Astrocyte Cells a. Link capillaries to neurons b. Attached to neurons Galena Park High School A&P IV. Anatomy-Nervous Tissue

13 A. Neuroglia (all types of nerve cells) 1. Astrocyte Cells a. Link capillaries to neurons b. Attached to neurons Galena Park High School A&P IV. Anatomy-Nervous Tissue

14 2. Microglia Cells a. Spider-like appearance b. Dispose of debris and bacteria in the brain Galena Park High School A&P

15 3. Ependymal Cells a. Attached to cavities of the brain and spinal cord b. Their beating cilia moves fluid around the brain and spinal cord Galena Park High School A&P

16 4. Oligodendrocyte Cells a. Wrap around neurons in brain b. Forms the myelin sheath that insulates neurons c. Brain tumors effect these cells since they can divide Galena Park High School A&P

17 5. Schwann Cells a. Wrap around neurons in the periphery neurons b. Forms the myelin sheath that insulates neurons Galena Park High School A&P

18 6. Neuron a. Impulse transmitting cells of the nervous system b. Cell Body- main sections of the cell which has the organelles c. Dendrites – branched appendages that carry the impulse toward the cell body Galena Park High School A&P

19 d. Axon – Branched appendage that carries the impulse away from the cell body nervous system e. Axon Terminal – End of an axon filled with neurotransmitters f. Synapse – Gap between neurons over which the impulse is carried by neurotransmitter Galena Park High School A&P

20 A. Resting Membrane 1. Waiting for stmuli 2. Outside of membrane- positive 3. Inside of membrane - negative Galena Park High School A&P IV. Generating an Impulse

21 B. Depolarization 1. Stimuli changes permeability of membrane 2. Positive ions rush in 3. Inside becomes more positive; outside becomes more negative Galena Park High School A&P

22 C. Generation of Active Potential 1. If stimulus is strong, entire membrane switches polarity 2. This causes a flow of electricity Galena Park High School A&P

23 D. Propagation of Action Potential 1. After first spot on membrane changes polarity 2. The change moves down the entire length of the membrane Galena Park High School A&P

24 E. Repolarization 1. Stimulus disappears and membrane permeability return to normal 2. Positive ions flow out and original positive and negative condition is restored Galena Park High School A&P

25 F. End of the Line 1. When action potential reaches end of the axon, a neurotransmitter is released into the synaptic cleft 2. Neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft and attaches to receptors on the next nerve 3. Impulse process starts again for next nerve cell Galena Park High School A&P

26 A.Five Parts of a Reflex Arc 1. Receptor-Senses the Stimulus 2. Sensory Neuron-Takes impulse to spinal cord 3. Integration Center – Transfers impulse into a response Galena Park High School A&P V. Reflex Arcs

27 4. Motor Neuron – Takes impulse from spinal cord to a muscle 5. Effector – Muscle or organ receiving impulse Galena Park High School A&P

28 A. Cerebrum - Anatomy 1. Two hemispheres 2. Largest part of the brain 3. Superior to the other brain areas Galena Park High School A&P VI. The Brain

29 4. Gyri –raised ridges of tissue 5. Sulcus – Shallow grooves separating the gyri 6. Fissures – deep grooves separating lobes of the cerebrum Galena Park High School A&P

30 7. Lobes – large portions of the cerebrum which generally have special functions B.Lobes of the Cerebrum Parietal Lobe, Frontal, Occipital, and Frontal Galena Park High School A&P

31 1. Parietal a. Orientation b. Consciousness of Senses c. Recognition d. Movement Galena Park High School A&P

32 2.Occipital Lobe a. Sight Sensation b. Sight Interpretation 3. Temporal Lobe a. Hearing b. Sense of Smell c. Speech Galena Park High School A&P

33 4. Frontal Lobe a. Reasoning, Planning b. Parts of Speech c. Movement d. Emotions e. Problem solving Galena Park High School A&P

34 C. Diencephalon Areas 1. Thalamus a. Relay station for sensory input b. Can sense good or bad c. Final interpretation is done in the sensory cortex Galena Park High School A&P

35 2. Hypothalamus a. Regulates body temperature, water balance and metabolism b. Emotional drives centered here C. Control the pituitary gland Galena Park High School A&P

36 3. Epithalamus a. Contains the pineal gland b. Forms the cerebospinal fluids important to the central nervous system Galena Park High School A&P

37 D. Brain Stem Areas 1. Midbrain a. Reflex centers for hearing and vision 2. Pons a. Fiber tracts pass through the pons b. Involved in breathing Galena Park High School A&P

38 3. Medulla Oblongata a. Connects with the spinal cord b. Involved in heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, swallowing and vomiting 4. Reticular Formation-controls motor activity – Found in all of the brain stem Galena Park High School A&P

39 E. Cerebellum 1. Located under and behind the cerebrum 2. Provides homeostasis involving our balance and equilibrium 3. Monitors body performance and sends out adjustments when needed. Galena Park High School A&P

40 A.Ataxia 1. Loss of muscle coordination due to cerebellum damage from stroke or head injury 2. Appearance of stumbling or drunk Galena Park High School A&P VII. Homeostasis

41 B. Encephalitis 1. Pressure on the brain 2. Caused by bacteria or virus 3. Meningitis occurs with it many times 4. Headache, fever, convulsions Galena Park High School A&P

42 C. Hydrocephalus 1. Fluid is obstructed 2. Causes pressure on the brain 3. Babies heads grow larger because bones are flexible. 4. Adults suffer brain damage 5. Shunts are inserted to drain excess fluid into a vein in the neck Galena Park High School A&P

43 D.Multiple Sclerosis 1. Myelin sheath around neurons is destroyed 2. Cells become inflexible 3. Electrical impulses short circuited 4. Loss of muscle control Galena Park High School A&P

44 E. Concussion 1. Mild hit to the head 2. Causes dizziness F.Contusion 1. Major tissue damage 2. Loss of motor activities 3. Brain stem contusion causes coma for days or a lifetime Galena Park High School A&P

45 G. Cerebral Edema 1. Bleeding in the brain 2. Accidents 3. Sports 4. Brain swells causing damge Galena Park High School A&P

46 H. Cerebrovascular Accident 1. Stroke 2. Blood doesn’t reach the brain 3. Can be mild or severe depending on where the blockage occurred and how long Galena Park High School A&P

47 I. Alzheimers 1. Degeneration of brain function 2. Effect memory and mood 3. Cause unknown 4. Little treatment Galena Park High School A&P

48 J. Parkinson’s Disease 1. Degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons 2. Lack of dopamine cause an over reaction of basal nuclei 3. Muscle tremors, head rolling Galena Park High School A&P

49 K. Huntington’s Disease 1. Degeneration of neurons 2. Inhibition of basal nuclei 3. Jerky, flapping motions, mental deterioration 4. No cure Galena Park High School A&P

50 A.Olfactory I –Sense of Smell B.Optic II – Sense of sight C.Oculomotor III – Fibers that move the muscles of the eyeballs except oblique and lateral rectus D.Trochlear IV – Supplies motor impulses for one eye muscle the oblique Galena Park High School A&P VIII. Cranial Nerves

51 E. Trigeminal V – Facial skin, nose and mouth sensory cells. Motor nerves for chewing. F. Abducens VI – Motor neurons to the lateral rectus muscle that rolls the eye Galena Park High School A&P

52 G.Facial VII –Taste anterior buds, motor neurons for facial expression, tears H.Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) VIII- Sense of hearing, sense of balance I. Glossopharyngeal IX – Motor nuerons for swallowing, sensory neurons for posterior taste buds Galena Park High School A&P

53 J.Hypoglossal XII – Senses from the tongue and motor neurons for tongue movement. Galena Park High School A&P


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