2 Agenda Laboratory Safety —Regulatory Introduction –Hazard Recognition Physical Chemical –Exposure Management Engineering Controls Administrative Controls –Material Segregation and Management Personal Protective Equipment –Fire Safety and Procedures –Spills and Emergency Response Hazardous Waste Management
3 Regulatory Introduction Columbia University laboratories must comply with rules set by the following regulatory bodies: New York City –Fire Department (FDNY) –Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) New York State –Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) Federal –Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) –United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
4 Peroxide-Forming Chemicals Peroxide-forming chemicals must be dated immediately upon opening Discard any unused chemicals within a year of opening date Ethers, THF, dioxanes are common peroxide-formers New York City Fire Department
5 New York City Fire Department Compressed gas cylinders Compressed gas cylinders must be stored upright and be restrained. Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from flammable gas cylinders.
6 New York City Fire Department Flammables in Refrigerators Flammable chemicals must be stored in a “Flammable Material Storage” or “Explosion Proof” refrigerator Domestic refrigerators located in labs are labeled “Store No Flammables Flashing below 100 F”.
7 New York City Fire Department Chemical containers must be Clearly and Visibly labeled to indicate their contents at all times.
8 Certificate of Fitness Program At least one C of F holder is required per lab while the laboratory is in operation (includes nights & weekends). –Certificate (C-14) indicates that holder knows emergency procedures in the event of a fire in the lab. –Labs with large amounts of compressed gases or cryogenics may require additional Certificates. –Contact EH&S for information on obtaining a C of F. New York City Fire Department
9 OSHA The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is the federal regulatory agency governing workplace health and safety. OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR ) is the specific regulation that applies to laboratory environments: –Information on hazard identification and protection –Information on chemical exposure, detection, and management –Emergency procedures –Employers’ and employees’ rights and responsibilities
10 What type of refrigerator is required for storage of flammable chemicals? Peroxide forming chemicals must be upon opening. Questions
11 Hazard Recognition “The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area.” 29CFR –Safety and hazard information is available from multiple sources.
12 Hazard Recognition Sources of hazard information: USDOT (Department of Transportation) Diamonds NFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) Diamonds Manufacturers’ labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Office of Environmental Health & Radiation Safety/ Environmental Health & Safety
13 Hazard Recognition Chemicals are often marked with the NFPA Diamond or similar hazardous communication markings to denote their hazards. Note the hazards as listed on chemical containers in your lab prior to using them.
14 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Shipped with all chemicals –Contain all safety information about a chemical, including the exposure limits, precautions for safe handling and use, and other hazard information. Must be accessible (paper copy or via internet) in the lab for all chemicals present.
15 Hazard Recognition - Physical Hazards Elements of the laboratory work environment, including chemicals and equipment, hold the potential to cause physical harm. For each type of hazard, awareness and simple protective measures will ensure safety. –Burns –Asphyxiation –Slips, Trips, Falls –Electrocution –Blunt Force Trauma, Lacerations –Compressed Gas and Cryogenic Hazards
16 Oxygen Alarms Oxygen alarms are used where large amounts of cryogenics or inert gases are stored, which can potentially cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen. DO NOT ENTER any area where an oxygen alarm is going off. Asphyxiation can be rapid and sudden, with no warning signs. Rescues must be performed by someone with a supplied air respirator. If it is possible to open doors/windows to ventilate area without entering, do so.
17 DANGER If you hear Alarm, DO NOT ENTER; Call Public Safety During Work hours also call EH&S POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARD If Alarm is Activated Assume alarm activation to be valid Evacuate all workers in room and close the door Call Public Safety immediately; also PI and EH&S Be prepared to provide information to responders DO NOT Enter the room DO NOT Attempt to rescue anyone, as asphyxiation can be rapid with no warning signs DO NOT Open door within first hour after the alarm has stopped sounding Do NOT attempt to repair a faulty sensor. Report it to TechAir ( ) or EH&S. Review Columbia University policy (www.ehs.columbia.edu/OxygenDeficiency).
18 Many substances commonly encountered in the laboratory environment pose chemical hazards. For each type of hazard, awareness and other protective measures will ensure safety. USDOT Diamonds, NFPA Diamonds, manufacturer’s labels, and MSDS will alert you to a chemical’s specific hazards. Hazard Recognition - Chemical Hazards –Flammability –Corrosivity –Toxicity –Reactivity
19 Hazard Recognition What does the blue part of the NFPA diamond signify?
20 Question What does MSDS stand for? Material Safety Data Sheet
21 Exposure Management - Chemical Routes of Entry Inhalation Absorption Injection Ingestion
22 A common route of chemical exposure is ingestion due to contaminated food or hands. Chemical Routes of Entry
23 Chemical Exposure – Health Effects Acute effects – sudden, traumatic effects –Headaches, dizziness, burns from corrosive chemicals Chronic effects – slow, gradual effects not rapidly perceived; poor or no warnings of exposure –Cancer, mutation, reproductive effects
24 Chemical Exposure - Exposure Limits Risk = Exposure x Hazard –Toxic effects can be minimized by keeping exposures to a minimum. Acceptable limits of exposure have been established for certain chemicals.
25 Exposure Limits Formaldehyde: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 0.75 parts per million (0.75 ppm) 15-minute short-term exposure limit (STEL): 2 ppm Odor threshold is 0.5 to 1.0 ppm Xylene: OSHA PEL: 100 ppm STEL: 150 ppm
27 Formaldehyde Health Effects Pungent, suffocating odor Irritating vapors to respiratory tract/skin Causes sensitization High concentrations may cause pulmonary edema Chronic exposure: nasal & lung cancers
28 Xylene Health Effects Colorless & Sweet Smelling Flammable liquid & vapors Eye/skin/respiratory tract irritation Can be absorbed through skin Target organs of chronic exposure: (kidney, liver, & blood)
29 Benzene Health Effects Colorless to light-yellow liquid Aromatic odor Irritation to eyes, skin, nose & throat Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, & loss of coordination, Depression of the CNS Effects are expected at 25 ppm
30 Methylene Chloride Health Effects Colorless; chloroform-like odor Irritation to eyes, skin, nose & throat Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, nausea, & loss of coordination, Chronic contact on skin → dermatitis Referred also as dichloromethane
31 Where are these chemicals found at Columbia University? Formaldehyde: Biology Chemistry Histology laboratories Human anatomy lab Any other labs using: –F ixed human or animal tissues/parts –Perfused animal carcasses
32 Exposure Monitoring Regular monitoring performed for those working closely with regulated chemicals (formaldehyde) Area monitoring where fume hoods are not available Low potential for exposure if not working directly with chemicals
33 Exposure Management A hierarchy of control measures is used to minimize risk associated with exposure by reducing the time or amount of exposure, or by altering the nature of exposure. –Engineering controls –Administrative controls –Personal protective equipment (PPE)
34 Exposure Management - Engineering Controls Engineering controls are measures designed to prevent exposure to a harmful substance or hazard. The most common engineering controls are: –Chemical Fume Hoods –Biosafety Cabinets
35 Engineering Controls - Chemical Fume hoods Chemical fume hoods reduce exposure to airborne hazards. Ensure that your fume hood is: Free of clutter Drawing air at a rate of linear feet per minute Visibly operational (use a “kim-wipe test” to monitor air flow) Not open more than 12”
36 Engineering Controls – Chemical Fume Hoods In addition to protection from airborne hazards, chemical fume hoods also provide an important physical barrier between you and your work.
37 Administrative controls are features of one’s work practices designed to reduce exposure. Chemical substitution Proper storage and segregation of hazardous materials Proper housekeeping practice Prudent inventory and purchase order management Appropriate training and Right to Know information (such as MSDS) Exposure Management - Administrative Controls
38 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution An effective way to reduce exposure to a hazardous material is to remove it from your work practice entirely. Consider the use of safer chemical alternatives when designing your experiments. Citrosolv v. xylene Enzymatic detergents v. chromic/sulfuric acid-based glass cleaners SYBR Safe v. ethidium bromide
39 Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Mercury is a TOXIC metal. Clean-up of spilled mercury is time and resource-intensive.
40 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Proper chemical storage reduces exposure risk. Segregation –Provide a specified storage area for each hazard class of chemicals. –Store incompatible materials physically apart from one another. Separation by deep spill trays is acceptable. Labeling –Label all chemical containers, including reaction vessels, with identifying information.
41 Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage When selecting a storage location for laboratory chemicals, consider the following: Compatibility of container and cabinet with the chemical Proximity to other chemicals, incompatible materials, heat, or open flame
42 What is wrong with this?
43 What is wrong with this?
44 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Each lab is permitted to store a certain quantity of flammable materials. Allowable limit determined by construction materials and presence of sprinklers. –4 Lab types: I, II, III, IV –Flammable limits of 30, 25, 20, 15 gallons, respectively –Flammable waste materials count toward these limits
45 Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Flammable liquids requiring refrigeration must be kept only in explosion-proof or intrinsically-safe refrigerators.
46 Administrative Controls - Housekeeping Do not block exits, aisles, or doorways. Do not block access to emergency equipment. Do not store chemicals in excess of lab’s limts Handle and store glassware with care. Do not store chemical containers on the floor. Poor housekeeping contributes to accidents and can hinder emergency response activities.
47 What is wrong with this?
48 What is wrong with this? Labeling Exposed Sharps Objects Open Bottle Open Sash Not Properly Managed
49 What is wrong with this? Poor housekeeping Excess chemical on the workbench
50 Administrative Controls - Inventory Management Purchase chemicals in the smallest quantity sufficient for your work; excess chemicals become Hazardous Waste. A list of chemicals present in the laboratory should be prepared, updated, and maintained in the laboratory. Dispose of all outdated or unused chemicals properly and promptly.
51 Questions Operations that may generate air contaminants at levels above the exposure limit must be conducted where?
53 Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection Laser goggles provide wavelength-specific protection, with opaque non-lens components to protect the face. Select appropriate protective eyewear based on the risk factors associated with your work. Safety glasses with side shields provide basic protection, and must be worn when handling hazardous materials. Safety goggles must be used when activities entail a moderate risk of splashing, or when handling highly corrosive materials.
54 Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection Never re-use disposable gloves. Change gloves frequently and as soon as they become contaminated or torn. Remove gloves as soon as work is completed. Consult manufacturers’ guides for proper glove selection. There is no glove material that will protect against all chemicals. Select a glove that provides the best permeation protection against the material(s) you will be handling.
55 Personal Protective Equipment - Lab coats Lab coats provide limited but critical protection from chemical splashes. Useful when working with small (i.e., research sized) quantities of hazardous chemicals. Heavily contaminated, well-worn lab coats must be either disposed of or laundered, before they become sources of exposure themselves. Keep coat buttoned to prevent entanglement in moving equipment.
56 What do you wear when you work in the lab?
57 Become familiar with the eyewash/drench hose in your lab. Test it weekly by activating it over a sink; keep a log. An emergency is the wrong time to learn that your safety equipment isn’t functioning properly! Safety Equipment
58 Safety Equipment
59 FIRE SAFETY - Reporting a Fire Manual pull stations located at exits. Campus phone system dial 99.
60 When to Sound a Fire Alarm Any fire or smoke condition. Dangerous situation – crime in progress, etc. For emergency building evacuation.
61 What to do in the Event of a Real Fire Fight or Flight? – If you stay: Feel door. If HOT, don’t open. If smoke or heat is present: –Remain in room. –Close door and seal cracks. If possible, phone Public Safety and give your location. Stand at window to signal Public Safety or the FDNY. If possible, open top and bottom window to allow fresh air in.
62 What to do in the Event of a Real Fire Fight or Flight? – If you go: If smoke and heat permit, stay low and crawl to safety. Close doors. Take keys with you to return if necessary. Knock on doors and yell “FIRE” if you can. Report location of heat and fire to Public Safety of the Fire Department.
63 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures Turn off all equipment within reach that can be safely turned off. Close fume hood sash. Close open chemical containers.
64 Know YOUR Location
65 Laboratory Evacuation Procedures Look for exit sign. Know location of fire exit. Count number of doors. Use nearest stair.
66 EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED!
67 GET LOW AND GO
69 What to do in the Event of a Real Fire Report any people that might still be inside. Never jump or climb out a window. If you catch fire, Stop-Drop-and-Roll.
71 People With Special Needs If you know of a person with special needs in the building, notify the FDNY or Public Safety as you exit. If the fire is not in the immediate vicinity: –Remain in room, sealing door cracks. –Notify Public Safety. –Signal from window. –Open window if possible.
72 Fire Extinguisher Types Class Of Fire Class A, Combustibles, Paper Class B, Grease And Oil Class C, Electrical Extinguisher Types Pressurized Water Dry Chemical, B-C Or A-B-C-D Check Label. CO 2 Class B -C
73 Fire Extinguisher Use Use extinguisher if: –You are properly trained. –Fire is very small. Report the fire before attempting to extinguish. Maintain a clear path between you and the exit.
74 Fire Extinguisher Use Stand 6 to 8 feet from the fire, keeping your back to the door. Using the proper extinguisher, remember PASS. P – Pull the pin. A – Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire. S – Squeeze the handle. S – Sweep nozzle across base of fire.
75 Fire Extinguisher Use P-Pull The Pin
Fire Extinguisher Use A-Aim The Nozzle At Base Of Fire
77 Fire Extinguisher Use S-Squeeze Handle
Fire Extinguisher Use S-Sweep Nozzle Across Base Of Fire
79 Fire Extinguisher Use The 30 Second Rule: If you can’t extinguish the fire in 30 seconds or with one extinguisher, GET OUT!
80 Questions How often should an eyewash be tested? Personal protective equipment should be worn in and outside the laboratory.
81 Spills and Emergency Response What would you do in the event of a spill?
82 Spills and Emergency Response Laboratory personnel must know what to do in case of an emergency. Personal Injury / Health Emergency Chemical Release –Unmanageable: Must only be handled by trained professionals. –Manageable: Can be handled by laboratory personnel using in-lab spill kit.
83 Spills and Emergency Response – Personal Contamination Spills of hazardous materials that involve personal contamination increase the possibility of exposure, particularly if the chemical is capable of being absorbed through the skin. Remove contaminated clothing. Flush exposed area with tepid water for 15 minutes. If there are no visible burns, wash gently with soap and warm water. Obtain MSDS. Obtain medical attention, if necessary. Report the incident to your supervisor. File appropriate accident reports and notify EH&S.
84 Medical Surveillance Employees who work with hazardous chemicals shall be provided the opportunity to receive medical attention: –Post-exposure –Post-monitoring (if exposure indicated) –Post-event (if exposure deemed likely) Consult the Occupational Health guidelines for medical surveillance details.
85 Spills and Emergency Response – Injuries and Health Emergencies Medical attention can be obtained at the following locations for personal injuries and health emergencies: Workforce Health and Safety Student Health Service NYPH Emergency Room
86 Spills and Emergency Response – Unmanageable Spills Do not attempt to clean up. Turn off ignition sources. Evacuate personnel and close doors leading to spill area. Alert people in the immediate area, and post warning signs. Call EH&S and Public Safety; notify supervisor or PI. Be prepared to give pertinent information to responders. Attend to persons contaminated by spilled materials.
87 Spill Responses managed by EH&S Since 2007, there have been 85 spills that EH&S has responded. 50 at CUMC and 35 at Morningside. The most common was Mercury at 20! Other spills include… Trimethyl Phosphine, BOE, HF, Nanostrip, Formaldehyde, Inorganic acids & metals, Chloroform, Ether, Mercaptoethanol and even unknowns.
88 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Spill Kit Know where your spill kit is located and become familiar with its contents
89 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Contents of a Spill Kit Absorbent material Absorbent pillows or powders Activated carbon for organic solvents Oil dry/floor dry for oil spills Vermiculate or kitty litter Neutralizing agents Acid Neutralizers -soda ash or Spill X-A (Fisher Safety). Base Neutralizers-citric acid powder or Spill X-C (Fisher Safety). Solvent Spills-activated carbon or Spill X-S (Fisher Safety)
90 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Spill Kits should cover the special types of hazards within the lab. Formaldehyde Mercury Radiation Hydrofluoric Acid
91 Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills
92 Remember…. Red bags are for regulated medical waste (gloves, pedri dishes and tubes) not for chemical spill debris!
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