2Agenda Laboratory Safety Hazardous Waste Management Regulatory IntroductionHazard RecognitionPhysicalChemicalExposure ManagementEngineering ControlsAdministrative ControlsMaterial Segregation and ManagementPersonal Protective EquipmentFire Safety and ProceduresSpills and Emergency ResponseHazardous Waste Management
3Regulatory Introduction Columbia University laboratories must comply with rules set by the following regulatory bodies:New York CityFire Department (FDNY)Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)New York StateDepartment of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC)FederalDepartment of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
4New York City Fire Department Peroxide-Forming ChemicalsPeroxide-forming chemicalsmust be dated immediatelyupon openingDiscard any unused chemicalswithin a year of opening dateEthers, THF, dioxanes arecommon peroxide-formers
5New York City Fire Department Compressed gas cylindersCompressed gas cylinders must be stored upright and be restrained.Oxygen cylinders should be kept at a minimum of 25 feet away from flammable gas cylinders.
6New York City Fire Department Flammables in RefrigeratorsFlammable chemicals must be stored in a “Flammable Material Storage” or “Explosion Proof” refrigeratorDomestic refrigerators located in labs are labeled“Store No Flammables Flashing below 100 F”.
7New York City Fire Department Chemical containers must be Clearly and Visibly labeled to indicate their contents at all times.
8New York City Fire Department Certificate of Fitness ProgramAt least one C of F holder is required per lab while the laboratory is in operation (includes nights & weekends).Certificate (C-14) indicates that holder knows emergency procedures in the event of a fire in the lab.Labs with large amounts of compressed gases or cryogenics may require additional Certificates.Contact EH&S for information on obtaining a C of F.
9OSHAThe Occupational Safety and Health Administration is the federal regulatory agency governing workplace health and safety.OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR ) is the specific regulation that applies to laboratory environments:Information on hazard identification and protectionInformation on chemical exposure, detection, and managementEmergency proceduresEmployers’ and employees’ rights and responsibilities
10Questions What type of refrigerator is required for storage of flammable chemicals?Peroxide forming chemicals must beupon opening.
11Hazard Recognition“The employer shall provide employees with information and training to ensure that they are apprised of the hazards of chemicals present in their work area.” 29CFRSafety and hazard information is available from multiple sources.
12Hazard Recognition Sources of hazard information: USDOT (Department of Transportation) DiamondsNFPA (National Fire Prevention Association) DiamondsManufacturers’ labelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Office of Environmental Health & Radiation Safety/ Environmental Health & Safety
13Hazard RecognitionChemicals are often marked with the NFPA Diamond or similar hazardous communication markings to denote their hazards.Note the hazards as listed on chemical containers in your lab prior to using them.
14Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Shipped with all chemicalsContain all safety information about a chemical, including the exposure limits, precautions for safe handling and use, and other hazard information.Must be accessible (paper copy or via internet) in the lab for all chemicals present.
15Hazard Recognition -Physical Hazards Elements of the laboratory work environment, including chemicals and equipment, hold the potential to cause physical harm.For each type of hazard, awareness and simple protective measures will ensure safety.BurnsAsphyxiationSlips, Trips, FallsElectrocutionBlunt Force Trauma, LacerationsCompressed Gas and Cryogenic Hazards
16Oxygen AlarmsOxygen alarms are used where large amounts of cryogenics or inert gases are stored, which can potentially cause asphyxiation by displacing oxygen.DO NOT ENTER any area where an oxygen alarm is going off.Asphyxiation can be rapid and sudden, with no warning signs.Rescues must be performed by someone with a supplied air respirator.If it is possible to open doors/windows to ventilate area without entering, do so.
17POTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARD DANGER If you hear Alarm, DO NOT ENTER; Call Public Safety During Work hours also call EH&SPOTENTIAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY HAZARDIf Alarm is ActivatedAssume alarm activation to be validEvacuate all workers in room and close the doorCall Public Safety immediately; also PI and EH&SBe prepared to provide information to respondersDO NOT Enter the roomDO NOT Attempt to rescue anyone, as asphyxiation can be rapid with no warning signsDO NOT Open door within first hour after the alarm has stopped soundingDo NOT attempt to repair a faulty sensor. Report it to TechAir ( ) or EH&S.Review Columbia University policy (www.ehs.columbia.edu/OxygenDeficiency).
18Hazard Recognition -Chemical Hazards Many substances commonly encountered in the laboratory environment pose chemical hazards.For each type of hazard, awareness and other protective measures will ensure safety.USDOT Diamonds, NFPA Diamonds, manufacturer’s labels, and MSDS will alert you to a chemical’s specific hazards.FlammabilityCorrosivityToxicityReactivity
19Hazard RecognitionWhat does the blue part of the NFPA diamond signify?
20QuestionWhat does MSDS stand for?Material Safety Data Sheet
21Exposure Management - Chemical Routes of Entry InhalationAbsorptionInjectionIngestion
22Chemical Routes of Entry A common route of chemical exposure is ingestion due to contaminated food or hands.
23Chemical Exposure – Health Effects Acute effects – sudden, traumatic effectsHeadaches, dizziness, burns from corrosive chemicalsChronic effects – slow, gradual effects not rapidly perceived; poor or no warnings of exposureCancer, mutation, reproductive effects
24Chemical Exposure - Exposure Limits Risk = Exposure x HazardToxic effects can be minimized by keeping exposures to a minimum.Acceptable limits of exposure have been established for certain chemicals.
25Exposure Limits Formaldehyde: Xylene: OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL): 0.75 parts per million (0.75 ppm)15-minute short-term exposure limit (STEL): 2 ppmOdor threshold is 0.5 to 1.0 ppmXylene:OSHA PEL: 100 ppmSTEL: 150 ppm
27Formaldehyde Health Effects Pungent, suffocating odorIrritating vapors to respiratory tract/skinCauses sensitizationHigh concentrations may cause pulmonary edemaChronic exposure: nasal & lung cancers
28Xylene Health Effects Colorless & Sweet Smelling Flammable liquid & vaporsEye/skin/respiratory tract irritationCan be absorbed through skinTarget organs of chronic exposure: (kidney, liver, & blood)
29Benzene Health Effects Colorless to light-yellow liquidAromatic odorIrritation to eyes, skin, nose & throatDrowsiness, dizziness, headache,nausea, & loss of coordination,Depression of the CNSEffects are expected at 25 ppm
30Methylene Chloride Health Effects Colorless; chloroform-like odorIrritation to eyes, skin, nose & throatDrowsiness, dizziness, headache,nausea, & loss of coordination,Chronic contact on skin → dermatitisReferred also as dichloromethane
31Where are these chemicals found at Columbia University? Formaldehyde:BiologyChemistryHistology laboratoriesHuman anatomy labAny other labs using:Fixed human or animal tissues/partsPerfused animal carcasses
32Exposure MonitoringRegular monitoring performed for those working closely with regulated chemicals (formaldehyde)Area monitoring where fume hoods are not availableLow potential for exposure if not working directly with chemicals
33Exposure ManagementA hierarchy of control measures is used to minimize risk associated with exposure by reducing the time or amount of exposure, or by altering the nature of exposure.Engineering controlsAdministrative controlsPersonal protective equipment (PPE)
34Exposure Management - Engineering Controls Engineering controls are measures designed to prevent exposure to a harmful substance or hazard. The most common engineering controls are:Chemical Fume HoodsBiosafety Cabinets
35Engineering Controls - Chemical Fume hoods Chemical fume hoods reduce exposure to airborne hazards.Ensure that your fume hood is:Free of clutterDrawing air at a rate of linear feet per minuteVisibly operational (use a “kim-wipe test” to monitor air flow)Not open more than 12”
36Engineering Controls – Chemical Fume Hoods In addition to protection from airborne hazards, chemical fume hoods also provide an important physical barrier between you and your work.
37Exposure Management - Administrative Controls Administrative controls are features of one’s work practices designed to reduce exposure.Chemical substitutionProper storage and segregation of hazardous materialsProper housekeeping practicePrudent inventory and purchase order managementAppropriate training and Right to Know information (such as MSDS)
38Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution An effective way to reduce exposure to a hazardous material is to remove it from your work practice entirely. Consider the use of safer chemical alternatives when designing your experiments.Citrosolv v. xyleneEnzymatic detergents v. chromic/sulfuric acid-based glass cleanersSYBR Safe v. ethidium bromide
39Administrative Controls – Chemical Substitution Mercury is a TOXIC metal. Clean-up of spilled mercury is time and resource-intensive.
40Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage Proper chemical storage reduces exposure risk.SegregationProvide a specified storage area for each hazard class of chemicals.Store incompatible materials physically apart from one another. Separation by deep spill trays is acceptable.LabelingLabel all chemical containers, including reaction vessels, with identifying information.
41Administrative Controls - Chemical Storage When selecting a storage location for laboratory chemicals, consider the following:Compatibility of container and cabinet with the chemicalProximity to other chemicals, incompatible materials, heat, or open flame
44Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Each lab is permitted to store a certain quantity of flammable materials.Allowable limit determined by construction materials and presence of sprinklers.4 Lab types: I, II, III, IVFlammable limits of 30, 25, 20, 15 gallons, respectivelyFlammable waste materials count toward these limits
45Administrative Controls – Chemical Storage (Flammables) Flammable liquids requiring refrigeration must be kept only in explosion-proof or intrinsically-safe refrigerators.
46Administrative Controls - Housekeeping Poor housekeeping contributes to accidents and can hinder emergency response activities.Do not block exits, aisles, or doorways.Do not block access to emergency equipment.Do not store chemicals in excess of lab’s limtsHandle and store glassware with care.Do not store chemical containers on the floor.
48What is wrong with this? Clutter Open Sash Open Bottle Labeling Exposed Sharps ObjectsNot Properly Managed
49What is wrong with this? Excess chemical on the workbench Poor housekeeping
50Administrative Controls - Inventory Management Purchase chemicals in the smallest quantity sufficient for your work; excess chemicals become Hazardous Waste.A list of chemicals present in the laboratory should be prepared, updated, and maintained in the laboratory.Dispose of all outdated or unused chemicals properly and promptly.
51QuestionsOperations that may generate air contaminants at levels above the exposure limit must be conducted where?
53Personal Protective Equipment - Eye Protection Select appropriate protective eyewear based on the risk factors associated with your work.Safety glasses with side shields provide basic protection, and must be worn when handling hazardous materials.Safety goggles must be used when activities entail a moderate risk of splashing, or when handling highly corrosive materials.Laser goggles provide wavelength-specific protection, with opaque non-lens components to protect the face.
54Personal Protective Equipment - Hand Protection There is no glove material that will protect against all chemicals. Select a glove that provides the best permeation protection against the material(s) you will be handling.Never re-use disposable gloves.Change gloves frequently and as soon as they become contaminated or torn.Remove gloves as soon as work is completed.Consult manufacturers’ guides for proper glove selection.
55Personal Protective Equipment - Lab coats Lab coats provide limited but critical protection from chemical splashes.Useful when working with small (i.e., research sized) quantities of hazardous chemicals.Heavily contaminated, well-worn lab coats must be either disposed of or laundered, before they become sources of exposure themselves.Keep coat buttoned to prevent entanglement in moving equipment.
57Safety EquipmentBecome familiar with the eyewash/drench hose in your lab. Test it weekly by activating it over a sink; keep a log.An emergency is the wrong time to learn that your safety equipment isn’t functioning properly!
59FIRE SAFETY - Reporting a Fire Manual pull stations located at exits.Campus phone system dial 99.
60When to Sound a Fire Alarm Any fire or smoke condition.Dangerous situation – crime in progress, etc.For emergency building evacuation.
61What to do in the Event of a Real Fire Fight or Flight? – If you stay: Feel door. If HOT, don’t open.If smoke or heat is present:Remain in room.Close door and seal cracks.If possible, phone Public Safety and give your location.Stand at window to signal Public Safety or the FDNY.If possible, open top and bottom window to allow fresh air in.
62What to do in the Event of a Real Fire Fight or Flight? – If you go: If smoke and heat permit, stay low and crawl to safety.Close doors.Take keys with you to return if necessary.Knock on doors and yell “FIRE” if you can.Report location of heat and fire to Public Safety of the Fire Department.
63Laboratory Evacuation Procedures Turn off all equipment within reach that can be safely turned off.Close fume hood sash.Close open chemical containers.
71People With Special Needs If you know of a person with special needs in the building, notify the FDNY or Public Safety as you exit.If the fire is not in the immediate vicinity:Remain in room, sealing door cracks.Notify Public Safety.Signal from window.Open window if possible.
72Fire Extinguisher Types Class Of FireExtinguisher TypesClass A, Combustibles, PaperPressurized WaterClass B, Grease And OilCO2 Class B -CClass C, ElectricalDry Chemical, B-C OrA-B-C-D Check Label.
73Fire Extinguisher Use Use extinguisher if: You are properly trained. Fire is very small.Report the fire before attempting to extinguish.Maintain a clear path between you and the exit.
74Fire Extinguisher UseStand 6 to 8 feet from the fire, keeping your back to the door.Using the proper extinguisher, remember PASS.P – Pull the pin.A – Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire.S – Squeeze the handle.S – Sweep nozzle across base of fire.
78Fire Extinguisher UseS-Sweep Nozzle Across Base Of Fire
79GET OUT! Fire Extinguisher Use The 30 Second Rule:If you can’t extinguish the fire in 30 seconds or with one extinguisher,GET OUT!
80Questions How often should an eyewash be tested? Personal protective equipment should be worn in and outside the laboratory.
81Spills and Emergency Response What would you doin the event of a spill?
82Spills and Emergency Response Laboratory personnel must know what to do in case of an emergency.Personal Injury / Health EmergencyChemical ReleaseUnmanageable: Must only be handled by trained professionals.Manageable: Can be handled by laboratory personnel using in-lab spill kit.
83Spills and Emergency Response – Personal Contamination Spills of hazardous materials that involve personal contamination increase the possibility of exposure, particularly if the chemical is capable of being absorbed through the skin.Remove contaminated clothing.Flush exposed area with tepid water for 15 minutes.If there are no visible burns, wash gently with soap and warm water.Obtain MSDS.Obtain medical attention, if necessary.Report the incident to your supervisor. File appropriate accident reports and notify EH&S.
84Medical SurveillanceEmployees who work with hazardous chemicals shall be provided the opportunity to receive medical attention:Post-exposurePost-monitoring (if exposure indicated)Post-event (if exposure deemed likely)Consult the Occupational Health guidelines for medical surveillance details.
85Spills and Emergency Response – Injuries and Health Emergencies Medical attention can be obtained at the following locations for personal injuries and health emergencies:Workforce Health and SafetyStudent Health ServiceNYPH Emergency Room
86Spills and Emergency Response – Unmanageable Spills Do not attempt to clean up.Turn off ignition sources.Evacuate personnel and close doors leading to spill area.Alert people in the immediate area, and post warning signs.Call EH&S and Public Safety; notify supervisor or PI. Be prepared to give pertinent information to responders.Attend to persons contaminated by spilled materials.
87Spill Responses managed by EH&S Since 2007, there have been 85 spills that EH&S has responded.50 at CUMC and 35 at Morningside.The most common was Mercury at 20!Other spills include… Trimethyl Phosphine, BOE, HF, Nanostrip, Formaldehyde, Inorganic acids & metals, Chloroform, Ether, Mercaptoethanol and even unknowns.
88Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Spill KitKnow where your spill kit is located and become familiar with its contents
89Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Contents of a Spill KitAbsorbent materialAbsorbent pillows or powdersActivated carbon for organic solventsOil dry/floor dry for oil spillsVermiculate or kitty litterNeutralizing agentsAcid Neutralizers -soda ash or Spill X-A (Fisher Safety).Base Neutralizers-citric acid powder or Spill X-C (Fisher Safety).Solvent Spills-activated carbon or Spill X-S (Fisher Safety)
90Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills Spill Kits should cover the special types of hazards within the lab.FormaldehydeMercuryRadiationHydrofluoric Acid
91Spills and Emergency Response – Manageable Spills
92Remember….Red bags are for regulated medical waste (gloves, pedri dishes and tubes) not for chemical spill debris!
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