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Post Disaster First Aid Types of Health Concerns Trauma Trauma Shock Shock Concussion Concussion Contusion Contusion Internal Bleeding Internal Bleeding.

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Presentation on theme: "Post Disaster First Aid Types of Health Concerns Trauma Trauma Shock Shock Concussion Concussion Contusion Contusion Internal Bleeding Internal Bleeding."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Post Disaster First Aid

3 Types of Health Concerns Trauma Trauma Shock Shock Concussion Concussion Contusion Contusion Internal Bleeding Internal Bleeding Deep Wounds Deep Wounds Broken Bones Broken Bones Long Term Concerns Long Term Concerns

4 Trauma Level 1- Immediate care Level 1- Immediate care Definition- An often serious and body altering physical injury, such as the removal of a limb. Definition- An often serious and body altering physical injury, such as the removal of a limb.

5 Types of Trauma Physical Trauma Physical Trauma Psychological Trauma Psychological Trauma Blunt Force Blunt Force Penetrating Trauma Penetrating Trauma

6 Shock- Level 1- Immediate Care Level 1- Immediate Care Definition - Shock is life-threatening and occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Shock can damage multiple organs. Definition - Shock is life-threatening and occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Shock can damage multiple organs. Shock requires immediate medical treatment and can get worse quickly. Shock requires immediate medical treatment and can get worse quickly.

7 Symptoms of Shock Anxiety or agitation Anxiety or agitation Confusion Confusion Pale, cool, clammy skin Pale, cool, clammy skin Low or no urine output Low or no urine output Bluish lips and fingernails Bluish lips and fingernails Dizziness, light-headedness, or faintness Dizziness, light-headedness, or faintness Profuse sweating, moist skin Profuse sweating, moist skin Rapid but weak pulse Rapid but weak pulse Shallow breathing Shallow breathing

8 First Aid for Shock Call 911 for immediate medical help. Call 911 for immediate medical help. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR. Continue to check rate of breathing at least every 5 minutes until help arrives. Continue to check rate of breathing at least every 5 minutes until help arrives. If the person is conscious and DOES NOT have an injury to the head, leg, neck, or spine, place the person in the shock position. Lay the person on the back and elevate the legs about 12 inches. DO NOT elevate the head. If raising the legs will cause pain or potential harm, leave the person lying flat. If the person is conscious and DOES NOT have an injury to the head, leg, neck, or spine, place the person in the shock position. Lay the person on the back and elevate the legs about 12 inches. DO NOT elevate the head. If raising the legs will cause pain or potential harm, leave the person lying flat. Give first aid for other injuries. Give first aid for other injuries. Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen tight clothing. Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen tight clothing.

9 Concussion Level 1 or Level 2 Trauma Level 1 or Level 2 Trauma A concussion is a trauma-induced injury to the brain occurring after a blow to the head. It can cause confusion, amnesia and loss of consciousness. A concussion is a trauma-induced injury to the brain occurring after a blow to the head. It can cause confusion, amnesia and loss of consciousness. The duration of unconsciousness and degree of confusion are very important indicators of how sever the injury is. The duration of unconsciousness and degree of confusion are very important indicators of how sever the injury is.

10 Aid for a Mild Concussion A grade one or two concussion A grade one or two concussion –The patient remains conscious and other symptoms disappear within one week Treat with rest and continued observation. Treat with rest and continued observation. Worsening of symptoms, or continuation of any symptoms beyond one week may indicate the need for a CT or MRI scan. Worsening of symptoms, or continuation of any symptoms beyond one week may indicate the need for a CT or MRI scan.

11 Aid for Severe Concussion A grade three concussion (involving any loss of consciousness, no matter how brief) should be examined by a medical professional either on the scene or in an emergency room. A grade three concussion (involving any loss of consciousness, no matter how brief) should be examined by a medical professional either on the scene or in an emergency room.

12 Second Impact Syndrome It is important that a patient who has sustained a concussion of any severity avoid the possibility of another blow to the head until after all symptoms have cleared to prevent second impact syndrome. It is important that a patient who has sustained a concussion of any severity avoid the possibility of another blow to the head until after all symptoms have cleared to prevent second impact syndrome. Second impact syndrome occurs when a person with a concussion, even a very mild one, suffers a second blow before fully recovering from the first. Second impact syndrome occurs when a person with a concussion, even a very mild one, suffers a second blow before fully recovering from the first. The brain swelling and increased pressure on the brain can potentially be fatal. The brain swelling and increased pressure on the brain can potentially be fatal.

13 Cerebral Contusion More serious than a concussion, a cerebral contusion is a bruise of the brain tissue More serious than a concussion, a cerebral contusion is a bruise of the brain tissue A contusion disrupts normal nerve functions in the bruised area and may cause loss of consciousness, hemorrhage, edema, and even death. A contusion disrupts normal nerve functions in the bruised area and may cause loss of consciousness, hemorrhage, edema, and even death.

14 Contusion Causes It is also seen in child, spouse, and elder abuse. It is also seen in child, spouse, and elder abuse. A cerebral contusion can occur when the force of a fall or blow causes the brain to rebounds (hit) against the skull. A cerebral contusion can occur when the force of a fall or blow causes the brain to rebounds (hit) against the skull.

15 Signs and symptoms of Contusion Severe headache Severe headache Dizziness Dizziness Vomiting Vomiting Increased size of one pupil Increased size of one pupil Sudden weakness in an arm or leg. Sudden weakness in an arm or leg. The person may seem restless, aggitated or irritable. The person may seem restless, aggitated or irritable. Often, the person may have memory loss or seem forgetful. Often, the person may have memory loss or seem forgetful. Any period of loss of consciousness or amnesia of the head injury should be evaluated by a health-care professional. Any period of loss of consciousness or amnesia of the head injury should be evaluated by a health-care professional. If the person is difficult to awaken or passes out, medical attention should be sought immediately. If the person is difficult to awaken or passes out, medical attention should be sought immediately.

16 Broken Bones Broken bones can be a level 1, 2, or 3 emergency. It all depends on the type and severity of the fracture.

17 Diagnosing Broken Bones The only way to diagnose a fracture definitively is through medical examination and x-rays. – –In other words, the ability to use an arm or leg does not necessarily mean that the bone is not broken..

18 Treating Broken Bones If a fracture is suspected immobilize the bone with a temporary splint or a brace, as soon as possible. The injured part of the body should be elevated to reduce swelling and bleeding. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.

19 Internal Bleeding Level of Urgency 1-2 (variable upon severity) Level of Urgency 1-2 (variable upon severity) Severe internal bleeding is a potentially life- threatening condition. Severe internal bleeding is a potentially life- threatening condition.

20 While the blood may not be obvious it is still lost from the circulatory system. While the blood may not be obvious it is still lost from the circulatory system. The patient is very likely to go into shock. The patient is very likely to go into shock. If untreated internal bleeding can cause loss of consciousness and lead to death. If untreated internal bleeding can cause loss of consciousness and lead to death. It can happen to any part of the body but the stomach, liver and the spleen have a high risk. It can happen to any part of the body but the stomach, liver and the spleen have a high risk. Internal bleeding is likely to accompany some broken bones. Internal bleeding is likely to accompany some broken bones. Internal Bleeding Risks

21 Signs and Symptoms of Internal Bleeding Signs and symptoms of shock Signs and symptoms of shock Bruising Bruising Boarding - this most commonly occurs where there is bleeding into the stomach area; the quantity of blood combined with swelling result in a rigidity to the tissues Boarding - this most commonly occurs where there is bleeding into the stomach area; the quantity of blood combined with swelling result in a rigidity to the tissues Swelling Swelling Bleeding from body orifices (nose, mouth) Bleeding from body orifices (nose, mouth)

22 First Aid for Internal Bleeding Treat for shock. Treat for shock. Keep the casualty warm. Keep the casualty warm. Place him in a comfortable position, preferably lying down with the legs slightly raised. Reassure him. Place him in a comfortable position, preferably lying down with the legs slightly raised. Reassure him. Treat any external bleeding or bleeding from orifices. Treat any external bleeding or bleeding from orifices. Call for an ambulance as soon as possible and explain what has happened. Call for an ambulance as soon as possible and explain what has happened.

23 Deep Wounds Level of Urgency 1-3 (variable upon severity) Lacerations (cuts) go through all layers of the skin and into the fat or deeper tissues. Bleeding may be severe. Lacerations (cuts) go through all layers of the skin and into the fat or deeper tissues. Bleeding may be severe. Lacerations (cuts) Lacerations (cuts) Severe blows, falls against a hard surface, or contact with a sharp object are the most common causes of lacerations. Severe blows, falls against a hard surface, or contact with a sharp object are the most common causes of lacerations.

24 Wound Self-Care at Home 1st, check to see that nothing is left in the wound 1st, check to see that nothing is left in the wound Check to see if the object that caused the wound is intact. If a piece is missing, it may be stuck in the wound. Check to see if the object that caused the wound is intact. If a piece is missing, it may be stuck in the wound. Allow the wound to bleed freely, but if bleeding is heavy or squirting out, apply pressure until it stops. Allow the wound to bleed freely, but if bleeding is heavy or squirting out, apply pressure until it stops. If bleeding won’t stop, you will need emergency care. If bleeding won’t stop, you will need emergency care.

25 When to go to the hospital If the wound is in the head, chest, or abdomen, unless it is very small If the wound is in the head, chest, or abdomen, unless it is very small If there is loss of feeling, numbness, or inability to move an arm or leg below the wound If there is loss of feeling, numbness, or inability to move an arm or leg below the wound If the wound is more than 24 hours old and you develop signs of infection, such as redness at the area of the wound, swelling, pus drainage, fever over 100°F, or red streaks coming away from the wound If the wound is more than 24 hours old and you develop signs of infection, such as redness at the area of the wound, swelling, pus drainage, fever over 100°F, or red streaks coming away from the wound If the wound does not stop bleeding after pressure is applied for 5 minutes If the wound does not stop bleeding after pressure is applied for 5 minutes If the wound has part of an object remaining in it, such as a pencil tip, nail, or piece of glass If the wound has part of an object remaining in it, such as a pencil tip, nail, or piece of glass If a lot of dirt remains in the wound If a lot of dirt remains in the wound If the wound is gaping or there is white tissue (fatty tissue) or muscle visible If the wound is gaping or there is white tissue (fatty tissue) or muscle visible If you have a chronic medical condition, such as diabetes, or if you take steroids If you have a chronic medical condition, such as diabetes, or if you take steroidsdiabetes

26 Long Term Concerns Poor living conditions after a disaster lead to additional health concerns. Poor living conditions after a disaster lead to additional health concerns. –diarrhea

27 What is diarrhea? Loose, watery stools Loose, watery stools May pass stool more than 3 times a day; may pass more than a quart of stool a day May pass stool more than 3 times a day; may pass more than a quart of stool a day Acute diarrhea usually lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away on its own without special treatment. Acute diarrhea usually lasts 1 or 2 days and goes away on its own without special treatment. Prolonged diarrhea persisting for more than 2 days may be a sign of a more serious problem and poses the risk of dehydration. Chronic diarrhea may be a feature of a chronic disease. Prolonged diarrhea persisting for more than 2 days may be a sign of a more serious problem and poses the risk of dehydration. Chronic diarrhea may be a feature of a chronic disease. Diarrhea can cause dehydration Diarrhea can cause dehydration Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children and older people. People of all ages can get diarrhea and the average adult has a bout of acute diarrhea about four times a year. Dehydration is particularly dangerous in children and older people. People of all ages can get diarrhea and the average adult has a bout of acute diarrhea about four times a year.

28 What causes Diarrhea? Acute diarrhea is usually related to a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection. Chronic diarrhea is usually related to functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. Acute diarrhea is usually related to a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection. Chronic diarrhea is usually related to functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease. More common causes of Diarrhea include: Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections Viral Infections Viral Infections Food Intolerances Food Intolerances Parasites Parasites Reactions to Medicines Reactions to Medicines Intestinal Diseases Intestinal Diseases Functional Bowel Disorders Functional Bowel Disorders

29 How is diarrhea treated? Replace lost fluid Replace lost fluid Take over the counter medication only if not caused by bacteria, virus, or parasite. Take over the counter medication only if not caused by bacteria, virus, or parasite. If the cause is a bacteria or parasite a doctor must prescribe an antibiotic. If the cause is a bacteria or parasite a doctor must prescribe an antibiotic. Viral infections are either treated with medication or left to run their course, depending on the severity and type of virus. Viral infections are either treated with medication or left to run their course, depending on the severity and type of virus.

30 Diarrhea Prevention Stress may weaken your immune system\ Stress may weaken your immune system\ Drink bottled water only Drink bottled water only Carefully prepare food Carefully prepare food Perishables that cannot be kept cold must be discarded Perishables that cannot be kept cold must be discarded

31 Sources health/topics/GeneralHealth/generalhealthsub/generalhealth/bones& joints&muscles/Fractures/fractures.html health/topics/GeneralHealth/generalhealthsub/generalhealth/bones& joints&muscles/Fractures/fractures.html


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