Presentation Overview Ozone & Air Safety Occupied Spaces versus Unoccupied spaces Commercial vs Residential Whole-Home Integrated-Fully (WHIF) Point-of-Use (POU) or (PU) for short Preventative versus Remedial References
Ozone can be used in occupied spaces safely and effectively with the correct dose being applied. Point-of-Use systems make proper dosing difficult so extreme care must be taken to prevent unhealthful levels of ozone in close proximity to living things. There is a growing regulatory consensus on standards concerning safe levels of ozone. The latest legislation, California State Assembly Bill AB 2276, sets 0.05 ppm as a safe ozone level for indoor areas occupied for extended periods of time. These standards, which go into effect December 2008 are the toughest globally. Ozone & Air Safety
Regulatory Organization (PPM) Ozone Concentration Standards IOA 0.01 - 0.10Odor detection CA EPA & FDA 0.05“Enclosed (indoor) space intended to be occupied for extended periods time” EPA NAAQS 0.08Permissible average outdoor concentration (8 hour) CA EPA 0.09“Outdoor” air standard WHO 0.10Daily mean standard for 8-hour period OSHA, NIOSH 0.10 Exposure 8-hour period 6 days per week WHO 0.24Adverse health effects likely over time IOA 0.30Short-term exposure only IOA 0.10 - 1.00Headaches, respiratory irritation, eye irritation IOA 1.00 - 10.00Nausea, chest pain, coughing, fatigue, reduced visual acuity, pulmonary edema IOA 10.00Dangerous Ozone & Air Safety
Pure Gaseous Ozone - Half Life by Temperature Gaseous Temp Degrees C/F Half Life * - 50/- 583 Months - 35/- 3118 Days - 20/- 48 Days 20/683 Days 120/2481.5 Hours 250/4821.5 Seconds * These values are based on THERMAL DECOMPOSITION only. NO other effects including: wall effects, humidity, organic loading or catalytic effects are reflected in these data. Average Room Temperature
Ozone is often labeled Smog because most hydrocarbons are difficult to measure accurately. Since, ozone is accurately measurable, it has long been used as the key indicator of the presence and severity of smog. When the other components of smog rise, so does the level of ozone. Ozone and Air Safety - Smog & Ozone
AirMaster & AirWave Ozone Levels Ozone and Air Safety
(occupied by people, plants or animals) Occupied Spaces (occupied by people, plants or animals) Residential Commercial Hospitals, Extended Care Facilities and Prisons Hotels and cruise ships Work-out facilities and locker rooms Bars and Restaurants Medical Applications & Temporarily Unoccupied Spaces Unoccupied & Temporarily Unoccupied Spaces Food storage Clothing storage Smoke damage New construction (VOC’s) Existing mold remediation Operating and clean rooms Occupied vs Unoccupied Ozone Air Systems
Occupied vs Unoccupied Air Systems Occupied / Preventative UV Sterilization (254mw) UV light has the ability to effect the function of living cells by alter ing the structure of the cells nuclear material, or DNA. The end result is that the organism can not reproduce. UV Ozonation (185mw) Ozone physically destroys the cell membrane through the oxidation process. As an added benefit, ozone oxidation also alters the molecular chain of non- organic materials as well. (VOC’s) Unoccupied / Remedial CD Ozonation (Corona Discharge) CD ozone has the same properties as UV ozone, but can generate much higher concentrations. It requires acceptable levels of NOx by providing dry air feed gas or a CD design that makes low levels of Nox
Occupied Spaces Centralized Systems Whole-House Integrated Fully (WHIF) are mounted at a central point of air distribution within the HVAC duct work. Residential forced-air heating and cooling Commercial and industrial air moving and ventilation Clean room and hospital ventilation Sewer off-gas ventilation and deodorization Point-of-Use (PU) are packaged as self- contained table-top or floor units that service one room at a time. Models vary, some having fans,others having filtration and still others both.. Bathrooms Hotel rooms Fire damage Mold remediation
Air Flow Sensor Activates ozone lamp with air flow O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 O3O3 Ozone Lamp UV Lamp Control Unit Whole-Home Fully-Integrated (UV & O 3 ) System Air Flow Ozone Lamp Shield UV energy Occupied Spaces
Ion: This method uses electrostatic attraction of oppositely charged ions and a collector to attract dust particles HEPA: Is an extremely effective filtration process HEPA stands for High Effenciay Particulate Air Filter. HEPA typically filters down to 0.3 micron PCO: PhotoCatalytic Oxidation is UV activation of Titanium Dioxide TiO 2. This is primarily a surface disinfection process. Occupied Spaces - Other Methods
Pros: Whole-home treatment - Tied to central HVAC system Invisible operation - inside the ductwork Silent - no moving parts Unobstructed air flow through the duct system Automatic On/Off operation linked to HVAC System Operation Unlike filters does NOT require more powerful fans to maintain air flow: NO increased energy use NO restriction of air circulation through the homeCons: Dealer installed Dealer serviced Whole-Home Integrated Systems
Point-of-Use Systems Point-of-Use (PU) Systems Reduce some airborne irritants and allergens Inexpensive Small portable units Easy to operate, Good single point treatment: laundry room, pet room Cons: Often produce ozone in immediate proximity of people Treats just one room at a time Harmful to asthmatics and those with lung & heart disease Current products soon to be outlawed by California AB 2276
Unoccupied Spaces - Fumigation & Remediation Remedial Applications Flood damage Flood damage Smoke damage Smoke damage New construction (VOC’s) New construction (VOC’s) Existing mold remediation Existing mold remediation Major odor problems Major odor problems Hog farms Mushroom farms Poultry farms Fish processing plants Fumigation Applications Cold storage Cold storage Pest control with Grains Pest control with Grains Insurance projects Insurance projects Fresh Picked FlowersFresh Picked Flowers
Self Contained Mobil Ozone Fumigation Trailer Unoccupied Spaces Remedial Applications Mold Mildew VOCs Smoke Ozone is safe and effective in the treating buildings contaminated with mold and spores while cleared of humans, pets, plants that would be harmed by high concentrations of ozone. Ozone concentrations are typically raised to between 10-20 ppm and maintained from 4 to 24 hours, depending on the severity of the problem, prior exhausting the ozone from the building. In-home fumigatio n
Unoccupied Spaces Cold Storage Applications Citrus Stone Fruit Vegetables Controlled atmosphere warehouses store fruit and vegetables in large nitrogen enriched, negative pressured rooms at < 40º F. Ozone can affectively reduce the airborne spoilage spores such as mold, mildew and help reduce surface microorganisms. The proper installation requires: Caution must be exercised with ozone dosage to avoid physicochemical changes to the commodity. Worker safety is paramount. A reliable, high grade ozone monitor must be used to determine safe levels prior to entry as well a personal respiratory devices available.
Recommendations / Comments Ozone is proven to be effective in many air applications and can be used safely and effectively. Evaluate you needs: Remedial or Preventative, Point-of-Use or Whole Home Buy from a reputable company Be safe: don’t expose people to unhealthful amounts of ozone Check for 3rd party testing: independent lab results, UL, EPA Ozone will not be effective on mold or mildew located under carpet or behind most obstacles.
References Dr. Charles Sopher, a specialist in the study of gaseous ozone applications http://www.int-ozone-assoc.org/ATTF.pdf Medallion Healthy Homes of Canada, Inc Ms. Beth Hamil, contributing industry professional United States EPA AeroQual, Eco Sensor and InUsa all make ozone in air analyzers. Prices range from $500 to $5,000. Eco Badge makes a personal ozone monitors.