Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Advanced Heart Failure: My Approach J.L. Mehta, MD, PhD Stebbins Chair in Cardiology Professor of Internal Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics University.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Advanced Heart Failure: My Approach J.L. Mehta, MD, PhD Stebbins Chair in Cardiology Professor of Internal Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced Heart Failure: My Approach J.L. Mehta, MD, PhD Stebbins Chair in Cardiology Professor of Internal Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR Feb 4, 2011

2 Topics to be Discussed Burden of heart failure Causes of heart failure, morbidity and mortality Pathophsiology Role of RAAS and SNS blockers, and diuretics When to use defibrillators/biventricular pacing

3 CHF affects more than 4.5 million people in the USA and 0.5 million new cases are diagnosed each year 1.2-2% of the population has CHF, with 75-80% of the group are above the age of 65 years Nearly 20 million people have unsuspected disease and likely to develop CHF in the next 1- 5 years CHF is responsible for >11 million visits to a physician's office and result in 3.5 million hospitalizations per year Median survival following onset is 1.7 years for men and 3.2 years for women- worse than lung cancer Burden of Heart Failure

4 Causes of Heart Failure, Morbidity and Mortality Causes of heart failure - Ischemic heart disease - Hypertension - Cardiomyopathies (viral, alcohol) Causes of Hospitalization - Non-compliance with drugs - Excessive salt and alcohol intake - Infections - Anemia - Co-morbidity (e.g. renal dz, Liver dz, depression)

5 Angiotensin - Angiotensin - Angiotensin Myocardial ischemia and Low Cardiac Output State Inflammation Release of MMPs and collagen degradation Myocyte slippage Wall thinning and regional dilatation  Wall stress Local Ang II release Release of Catecholamines, ANP, BNP and ET-1 TGF  1, PAI-1, ROS expression Myocyte apoptosis, Fibroblast growth Collagen formation Myocyte hypertroph y Cardiac enlargement and fibrosis Early Stage Intermediate Stage Late Stage Mehta JL, 2010

6 RAS, renin-angiotensin system; SNS, sympathetic nervous system. Myocardial injury to the heart Morbidity and mortality Arrhythmias Pump failure Renal dysfn Peripheral vasoconstriction Hemodynamic alterations CHF symptoms Remodeling and progressive worsening of LV function Initial fall in LV performance,  wall stress Activation of SNS Fibrosis, apoptosis, hypertrophy, cellular, alterations, myotoxicity Fatigue Chest congestion Edema SOB Neurohormonal Activation in Heart Failure

7 Mortality by Baseline Plasma Norepinephrine Level Francis G et al. Circulation. 1993;87(suppl VI):VI-40 - VI-48. 100 80 60 40 20 06121824303642485460 Months Cumulative Mortality (%) > 900 pg/mL > 600 and < 900 pg/mL < 600 pg/mL Overall P <.0001 0

8 When to Use ß-blockers and RAS Inhibitors It dose not matter which agent is started first, but early ß- blockade reduces the risk of sudden death in the first year The usual practice of starting the ACE inhibitor first may lead to under-treatment with ß- blockers Willenheimer, Eur Heart J Suppl 2009;11:A15-A20 The CIBIS III trial

9 Treatment of Advanced of Heart Failure Part 1 Hospitalize early Treat first with usual drugs- if patient not responsive, then change Rx Limit salt intake Treat hypertension Treat infections- usually UTI or pulmonary Treat anemia to hemoglobin to ~10 g/100 ml Treat co-morbidity (e.g. renal dz- may need fluids) Treat abnormal thyroid function If patient has angina, use anti-ischemic therapy If patient has valvular dz, may consider surgery when patient is stable

10 Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure Part 2 ACE inhibitors, ARBs, Hydralazine and Nitrates Use maximal dose of ACE inhibitors, if not tolerated then use ARBs May combine the two groups of drugs If patient is already taking ACE inhibitors/ARBs, switch to hydralazine + nitrates- use adequate dose, response is quick Dose of hydrazine- 50-100 mg TID and ISD- 40 mg TID

11 Diuretics Excessive diuresis can cause metabolic alkalosis and poor renal perfusion- if present hold diuretics If no alkalosis, use IV lasix or metalazone If alkalosis present, use K + and Mg + supplementation Patient may have acute renal failure from excessive diuresis, consider gentle fluid administration If patient has hyponatremia, consider half or normal saline (250 ml per hr until urine output improves or patient develops rales when diuresis may be begun) Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure Part 3

12 RALES: Probability of Survival Patients with Class II-IV CHF 30% reduction in risk of death 31% reduction in cardiac death, P<0.001 Pitt, B. et al. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709-717

13 Eplerenone in Mild CHF- EMPHASIS-HF Zannad F et al. N Engl J Med 2011;364:11-21. Patients with class I-II CHF NNT-19

14 Other therapies Digitalis- increases CO and makes patient feel better Dobutamine / milrinone- use short course only- no long tem benefit Nasiritide - no role in the therapy of CHF CCBs – no role in the therapy of CHF Ultra-filtration - no better than diuresis Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure Part 4

15 CRT improves functional capacity, quality of life, and reduces hospitalization in patients with advanced symptomatic CHF, and evidence of a ventricular conduction abnormality. Appropriate method patient selection for CRT is not clear. Issues about the placement of LV lead remain. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure Part 5

16 Implantable defibrillators reduce the risk of sudden death in patients with CHF, with and without prolonged QRS duration Patients with Class II-III benefit more than Class IV patients Issues: - Who are the best candidates for defibrillators? - Is the cost of implanting and maintaining these devices worth the benefit? - How can side effects and risks be minimized? ICD Therapy: Treatment of Advanced Heart Failure Part 6

17 CRT / ICD and Death or Hospitalization for CHF Tang AS et al. N Engl J Med 2010;363:2385-2395. In class II or III CHF patients, with wide QRS complex, and EF <30%, the addition of CRT to ICD reduced rates of death and hospitalization for CHF. This improvement was accompanied by more adverse events in 1 month (pneumothorax, hematoma and infections).

18 Thank you


Download ppt "Advanced Heart Failure: My Approach J.L. Mehta, MD, PhD Stebbins Chair in Cardiology Professor of Internal Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics University."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google