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Connective Tissue. General Characteristics most abundant and widely distributed of all the tissue types binds structures, provides support and protection,

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Presentation on theme: "Connective Tissue. General Characteristics most abundant and widely distributed of all the tissue types binds structures, provides support and protection,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Connective Tissue

2 General Characteristics most abundant and widely distributed of all the tissue types binds structures, provides support and protection, serves as frameworks, fills spaces, stores fat, produces blood cells, protects against infection, and helps repair tissue damage farther apart than epithelial cells

3 General Characteristics—cont. variations in blood supply –most are well vascularized –tendons and ligaments have a poor blood supply –cartilages are avascular have an abundance of extracellular matrix –produced by the connective tissue and then secreted to the exterior –could be liquid, semisolid or gel-like, or very hard –various types and amounts of fibers are deposited in the matrix

4 Major Cell Types in Connective Tissue 1.Fibroblasts most common type of fixed cell in connective tissue large, star-shaped produce fibers by secreting proteins into the extracellular matrix produce three types of fibers: collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers

5 Major Cell Types in Connective Tissue 2.Macrophages wandering cells that originate as white blood cells specialized to carry on phagocytosis can move about and function as scavenger and defensive cells that clear foreign particles from tissues

6 Major Cell Types in Connective Tissue 3.Mast cells large and widely distributed usually located near blood vessels release heparin, which prevents blood clotting, and histamine, which promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies

7 Connective Tissue Fibers 1.Collageneous fibers thick threads of the protein collagen flexible, but only slightly elastic great tensile strength important parts of ligaments (which connect bone to bone) and tendons (which connect muscles to bone)

8 Connective Tissue Fibers 2.Elastic fibers composed of the protein elastin thin fibers that branch forming complex networks weaker than collageneous fibers but can stretch easily and resume original length and shape common in body parts that are frequently stretched, like the vocal cords 3.Reticular fibers very thin collagenous fibers highly branched and form delicate supporting networks found in a variety of tissues, including the spleen

9 Loose Connective Tissue also called areolar tissue soft, pliable tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps considered a connective tissue “glue” lies beneath most layers of epithelium, where its many blood vessels nourish nearby epithelial cells When a body region is inflamed, the areolar tissue in the area soaks up the excess fluid like a sponge. The area swells and becomes puffy, a condition called edema.

10 Adipose Tissue also called fat specialized form of loose connective tissue that develop when certain cells store fat in droplets within their cytoplasm and enlarge lies beneath the skin where it insulates and stores energy cushions joints and some organs

11 Dense Connective Tissue also called dense fibrous tissue has collagen fibers as its main matrix elements crowded between the collagen fibers are rows of fibroblasts that manufacture the fibers form strong, ropelike structures such as tendons and ligaments blood supply is low also makes up the lower layers of skin (dermis)

12 Cartilages less hard and more flexible than bone only found in a few places in the body several types in the body A.hyaline cartilage—most widespread; attaches ribs to breastbone, and covers the ends of bones where joints are formed B.elastic cartilage—found where a structure with elasticity is desired, such as the external ear C.fibrocartilage—very tough tissue; forms the cushionlike disks between the vertebrae of the spinal column; shock absorber

13 Bone most rigid connective tissue sometimes called osseous tissue composed of bone cells sitting in cavities called lacunae and surrounded by layers of a very hard matrix has an exceptional ability to protect and support other body organs

14 Blood considered a connective tissue because it consists of blood cells, surrounded by a nonliving, fluid matrix called blood plasma “fibers” of blood are soluble protein molecules that become visible only during blood clotting transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system

15 Muscle Tissue contract in response to specific stimuli muscle fibers shorten during contraction three types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

16 Skeletal Muscle found in muscles that attach to bones form the flesh of the body can be controlled voluntarily pull on bones or skin when they contract which results in gross body movements or changes in facial expressions cells are long, cylindrical and multinucleate with obvious striations

17 Smooth Muscle Tissue no striations are visible individual cells have a single nucleus and are spindle shaped found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, bladder, uterus and blood vessels When smooth muscle contracts, the cavity of an organ alternately constricts and dilates so that substances are propelled through the organ along a specific pathway. contracts more slowly than the other two muscles involuntary movement

18 Cardiac Muscle Tissue found only in the heart As it contracts, the heart acts as a pump and propels blood through the blood vessels. has striations like skeletal muscle, but cardiac cells are uninucleate and fit together tightly at junctions called intercalated disks under involuntary control

19 Nervous Tissue cells are called neurons All neurons receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another. have a unique structure—drawn out cytoplasm into long extensions make up the structures of the nervous system

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