7Aim of the testAn etiological diagnosis of bacterial conjunctivitis by aerobic cultivation with identification and susceptibility test of the isolated bacteria .Types of specimenDischarge from the eye(s).
9Specimen collectionPull down the lower eyelid so that the lower conjunctival fornix is exposed.Swab the fornix without touching the rim of the eyelid with the sterile cotton swab.Place the swab immediately in a bacterial transport medium or, the specimen is brought to the laboratory immediately, in a sterile test tube with 0.5 mL of buffered saline (pH 7).Take Sufficient amount on the swab
13Ear Discharge Aim of the test Types of specimen Aetiological diagnosis of otitis external or otitis media by aerobic and anaerobic culture with identification and susceptibility test of the isolated organism (s).Types of specimenPus from the external or middle ear.
15Specimen collectionCollect a specimen of the discharge on a thin, sterile cotton wool or Dacron swab.Place the swab in a container with the transport medium, breaking off the swab stick to allow the stopper to be replaced tightly.Label the specimen and send it to the laboratory.Time relapse before processing the sample Not more than 2 hours
18Background & Terminology Vaginitis : significant inflammatory response in vaginal wall. Accompanied by high number of leukocytes in vaginal fluid. Found with candida and trichomonas infections.Vaginosis : minimal inflammatory response with few leukocytes in vaginal wall. Associated with increase in bacterial concentrations.Leukorrhoea : a non-infective, non-bloodstained physiological vaginal discharge.
22Common Causes Normal discharge (30%) Bacterial Vaginosis (23-50%) Candida Vulvovaginitis (20-25%)Trichomonas vaginitis (5-15%)Mixed infection or Sexually Transmitted Disease (20%)
23Whiff TestThe vaginal discharge of patients with BV has a characteristic fishy odor due to increased activity of anaerobic species. Addition of KOH will augment this odor.
24Aim of the testIsolate and identify potentially aerobic pathogenic organisms includingGardnerella vaginalis and group B Streptococcus; establish the diagnosis of gonorrhea, medical/legal cases.
25Types of specimenSwab of vagina, cervix, discharge, aspirated endocervical, endometrial, prostatic fluid, or urethral discharge.Use swab to inoculate Jembec for transport to the laboratory and recovery of Neisseria gonorrhoeae; swabshould also be sent in transport device.