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Thoracic Radiology Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX.

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Presentation on theme: "Thoracic Radiology Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thoracic Radiology Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX Wendy Blount, DVM Nacogdoches TX

2 Thoracic Rads - Normal Review of thoracic radiographs - Steps Skeletal –Spine, front limbs, ribs, sternum Cranial abdomen Airways, Lung fields Great vessels –Aorta, pulmonary arteries, cranial & caudal vena cava Smaller vessels –Internal thoracic arteries, pulmonary lobar a & v, brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery Cardiac silhouette –Vertebral heart score, bulge Left Heart Failure? Right Heart Failure?

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9 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Comparing heart size to lung field size doesn’t work –Dogs of different conformation have different ratios of heart size to lung size

10 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Comparing heart size to lung field size doesn’t work –Dogs of different conformation have different ratios of heart size to lung size

11 Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Comparing heart size to lung field size doesn’t work –Dogs of different conformation have different ratios of heart size to lung size Thoracic Rads - Normal

12 Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Comparing heart size to lung field size doesn’t work –Dogs of different conformation have different ratios of heart size to lung size –Lung field size changes with the breathing cycle –Abdominal fat pushes the diaphragm cranially –Thoracic fat makes lung fields appear smaller Comparing heart size to vertebral size works better –Vertebral heart score

13 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger

14 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger

15 Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger Thoracic Rads - Normal

16 Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger –Pericardial fat –Pericardial effusion –Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia

17 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger –Pericardial fat –Pericardial effusion –Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia

18 Thoracic Rads - Normal Why is it so difficult to evaluate cardiac and chamber size on radiographs? Things can make the heart look bigger –Pericardial fat –Pericardial effusion –Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia –Oblique positioning on VD/DV can make right heart look bigger MYTH - “increased sternal contact” means right heart enlargement

19 Thoracic Rads - Normal

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21 Normal cats change with age Long axis of the heart is more horizontal in old cats (40%) Aortic bulge develops (30%) –Not due to hypertension or hyperthyroidism –At the aortic isthmus –Cardiac measurements in young & old cats are the same, despite these conformational changes in the thorax

22 Thoracic Rads - Normal = 9.8 Vertebral Heart Score

23 Thoracic Rads - Normal Vertebral Heart Score Measure heart long axis –carina to the apex Measure heart short axis –Widest perpendicular to length Count vertebrae from cranial aspect T4 Add together Dogs – normal Cats – normal 7-8

24 Heart Chambers – VD/DV - Left Thoracic Rads - Normal LV - Left Ventricle AV - Aortic Valve AA - Ascending Aorta DA - Descending Aorta

25 Heart Chambers – VD/DV - Left Thoracic Rads - Normal LV - Left Ventricle AV - Aortic Valve AA - Ascending Aorta DA - Descending Aorta LA – Left Atrium

26 Heart Chambers – VD/DV - Left Thoracic Rads - Normal

27 Heart Chambers – VD/DV - Right Thoracic Rads - Normal Right Ventricle Pulmonic Valve Main Pulmonary Artery Right Pulmonary Artery Left Pulmonary Artery PV

28 Heart Chambers – VD/DV - Right Thoracic Rads - Normal

29 Heart Chambers – VD/DV – Clock Face Aorta 12-1 o’clock LV 3-6 o’clock

30 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – VD/DV – Clock Face Aorta 12-1 o’clock MPA 1-2 o’clock LV 3-6 o’clock RV 7-9 o’clock

31 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – VD/DV – Clock Face Aorta 12-1 o’clock MPA 1-2 o’clock LV 3-6 o’clock RV 7-9 o’clock LA has to be really big to see on VD

32 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – VD/DV – Clock Face Aorta 12-1 o’clock MPA 1-2 o’clock LV 3-6 o’clock RV 7-9 o’clock LA has to be really big to see on VD RA 9-12 o’clock

33 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Left LA – Left Atrium MV – Mitral Valve LV – Left Ventricle AV – Aortic Valve SV – Sinus of Valsalva AAo – Ascending Aorta BCT – Brachiocephalic Trunk LS – Left Subclavian a.

34 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Right RA – Right Atrium Raur – R Auricle RV – Right Ventricle MPA – Pulmonary a.

35 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Right RA – Right Atrium Raur – R Auricle RV – Right Ventricle MPA – Pulmonary a. RVOT – RV Outflow PV – Pulmonic Valve RPA – R Pulmonary a. LPA – L Pulmonary a.

36 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Clock Face LA (caudal waist) – 12-3 o’clock LV o’clock

37 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Clock Face LA (caudal waist) – 12-3 o’clock LV o’clock RV o’clock MPA – o’clock – bulge at 1-2 o’clock

38 Thoracic Rads - Normal Heart Chambers – Lateral – Clock Face LA (caudal waist) – 12-3 o’clock CdVC – 2 o’clock LV o’clock RV o’clock Raur – 9 o‘clock RA not easily seen on the lateral view CrVC – 10 o’clock MPA – o’clock – bulge at 1-2 o’clock

39 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel – coughing

40 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal = 12.1

41 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel - coughing Skeletal, Cranial abdomen –No abnormalities noted Airways, Lung fields –Mild perihilar edema Great vessels –enlarged caudal vena cava Smaller vessels –enlarged pulmonary lobar veins Cardiac silhouette –Generalized cardiomegaly, enlarged LA

42 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel - coughing Skeletal, Cranial abdomen –No abnormalities noted Airways, Lung fields –Mild perihilar edema Great vessels –enlarged caudal vena cava Smaller vessels –enlarged pulmonary lobar veins Cardiac silhouette –Generalized cardiomegaly, enlarged LA

43 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel – coughing

44 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel – coughing

45 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel – coughing

46 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel - coughing Left Congestive Heart Failure –Mild perihilar edema –enlarged pulmonary lobar veins –enlarged LA (generalized cardiomegaly) –Enlarged LV (elevated trachea) Right Congestive Heart Failure –enlarged caudal vena cava –Generalized cardiomegaly (RV enlargement) –(ascites, pleural effusion)

47 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #1 – 8 year old neutered male cocker spaniel - coughing Diagnosis by echo - DCM

48 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Are rads or echo better for detecting congestive heart failure? radiographs Are rads or echo better for detecting enlarged heart chambers? echo

49 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Generalized cardiomegaly (all 4 heart chambers enlarged) Dogs Dilated Cardiomyopathy Mitral regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation Cats Dilated cardiomyopathy anemia

50 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

51 Pseudocardiomegaly No significantly enlarged heart chambers Significantly enlarged cardiac silhouette Pericardial effusion –Hemorrhage – HBT or ruptured LA –Right heart failure – modified transudate –Infectious pericarditis –Idiopathic pericarditis Peritoneopericardial Diaphragmatic Hernia Pericardial fat

52 Case #2 – 15 month Maine coon cat – tachypnea, lethargy Thoracic Rads - Abnormal = 8.9

53 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #2 – 15 month Maine coon cat – tachypnea, lethargy Skeletal & cranial abdomen Airways, Lung fields –No abnormalities noted Great vessels –caudal vena cava somewhat enlarged Smaller vessels –No abnormalities noted Cardiac silhouette –Generalized cardiomegaly, apex shifted right

54 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #2 – 15 month Maine coon cat – tachypnea, lethargy Skeletal & cranial abdomen Airways, Lung fields –No abnormalities noted Great vessels –caudal vena cava somewhat enlarged Smaller vessels –No abnormalities noted Cardiac silhouette –Generalized cardiomegaly, apex shifted right

55 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #2 – 15 month Maine coon cat – tachypnea, lethargy Heart Failure?? –Probably not Diagnosis –Echo showed dilation of LV and RV –Flea Anemia (PCV 10%)

56 Case #3 – 5 year old Maltese honking cough holosystolic murmur loudest L apex Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

57 Case #3 – 5 year old Maltese honking cough holosystolic murmur loudest L apex Thoracic Rads - Abnormal = 13.1

58 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #3 – 5 year old Maltese continuous murmur is heard loudest at the left axilla Left Heart Failure –pulmonary edema, LA enl, tracheal elevation Airway Cough – enlarged LA –compression of left bronchus and trachea Bulge at 1:30 on VD, apex shifted right –cardiomegaly (R or L or both?)

59 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Heart Chambers – VD/DV – Clock Face Aorta 12-1 o’clock MPA 1-2 o’clock LV 3-6 o’clock RV 7-9 o’clock LA has to be really big to see on VD RA 9-12 o’clock

60 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #3 – 5 year old Maltese Diagnosis by echo - PDA –Right heart normal LISTEN TO THE LEFT ARMPIT!! When the left heart is markedly enlarged, right heart size can be difficult to evaluate on radiographs

61 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #4 – 12 year old Mini Poodle - holosystolic murmur L apex Skeletal, cranial abdomen, airways, Lung fields, Great vessels, small vessels –No abnormalities noted Cardiac silhouette –VHS high if you include LA –VHS normal if you exclude LA –Huge LA No signs of congestive heart failure

62 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #4 – 12 year old Mini Poodle - holosystolic murmur L apex Diagnosis –Mitral regurgitation Treatment –Cough suppressants Monitoring –Chest rads every 6 months –Sooner if respiratory rate while sleeping >40

63 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #4 – 12 year old Mini Poodle - holosystolic murmur L apex You can have a Huge LA and even LV without CHF CHF is rarely present without enlarged LA

64 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

65 3 Most Common Causes of L Heart Enlargement 1.MR 2.PDA 3.SAS

66 Case #5 – 4 year old DSH - Murmur heard on annual – left sternum Thoracic Rads - Abnormal = 7.5

67 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #5 – 4 year old DSH - Murmur heard on annual – left sternum Skeletal, cranial abdomen, Lung fields, airways, Great vessels, small vessels –No abnormalities noted Cardiac silhouette –VHS normal –Enlarged LA on VD No signs of congestive heart failure Diagnosis by echo - HCM

68 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #5 – 4 year old DSH - Murmur heard on annual – left sternum LA is seen more easily on the VD in cats LA sits more cranial in the cat LA is seen more easily on lateral in dogs VHS usually does not include LA in cats Other chambers need to be enlarged to perceive cardiomegaly on the lateral in cats

69 Case #6 – 10 year old mixed dog - Gagging up white foamy fluid, mitral murmur Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

70 Case #6 – 10 year old mixed dog - Gagging up white foamy fluid, mitral murmur Skeletal, Cranial abdomen, Great vessels –No abnormalities Airways, Lung fields –Elevated trachea, compressed left bronchus –Perihilar edema Smaller vessels –enlarged pulmonary lobar veins Cardiac silhouette –VHS 11.5, generalized cardiomegaly, enlarged LA

71 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #6 – 10 year old mixed dog - Gagging up white foamy fluid, mitral murmur Left Heart Failure Echo diagnosis – severe mitral regurgitation

72 Case #7 – 1 yr old Golden Retriever - Episodes of collapse with exercise Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

73 Case #7 – 1 yr old Golden Retriever - Episodes of collapse with exercise Skeletal, Cranial abdomen, Airways, Lung fields, small vessels –No abnormalities Cardiac silhouette –VHS 9.5 –aortic bulge & enlarged LA on lateral No signs of congestive heart failure Echo diagnosis – severe SAS

74 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Loss of Cranial Waste 1.Dilated Aortic Arch SAS PDA Tetralogy of Fallot 2.Enlarged RAuricle TR Heartworm Disease 3.Heart Base Tumor (RA, Aortic Body) HSA, chemodectoma, myxosarcoma

75 Case #7 – 12 yr old Mixed Terrier - Chronic cough and cyanosis Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

76 Case #7 – 12 yr old Mixed Terrier - Chronic cough and cyanosis Skeletal, Cranial abdomen, Vessels –No abnormalities Airways, Lung fields –Pronounced airway pattern Cardiac silhouette –VHS , RV enlargement, apex shifted L No heart failure

77 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #7 – 12 yr old Mixed Terrier - Chronic cough and cyanosis Echo diagnosis –RV thickening –Suspect pulmonary hypertension Clinical Diagnosis –Severe chronic pulmonary disease

78 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #7 – 12 yr old Mixed Terrier - Chronic cough and cyanosis What does it mean when the apex is shifted right? –LV enlargement or generalized cardiomegaly What does it mean when the apex is shifted left? –RV enlargement

79 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #7 – 12 yr old Mixed Terrier - Chronic cough and cyanosis RV enlargement must be moderate to severe to see on rads RA enlargement difficult to appreciate on rads unless severe (cause) –TR Lifting of the apex off the sternum on lateral view means RV enlargement

80 Measuring RV enlargement on Lateral View of the Thorax Thoracic Rads - Abnormal 3.75 / 1 = 3.75

81 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Measuring RV enlargement on Lateral View of the Thorax 1.Measure heart long axis Carina to apex 2.Measure heart short axis Widest point perpendicular to long axis 3.Short Axis - Divide Cranial part by Caudal part Cranial is <2.5x Caudal in normal dogs (Cr >2.5x Cd) means RV enlargement

82 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #8 – 10 month old English Pointer Ejection murmur loudest at heart base on left side

83 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #8 – 10 month old English Pointer Ejection murmur loudest at heart base on left side Skeletal, Cranial Abdomen, Airways, Lung fields, small vessels –normal Great vessels –pulmonary artery enlarged No signs of Congestive Heart Failure

84 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #8 – 10 month old English Pointer Ejection murmur loudest at heart base on left Causes of enlarged MPA (dogs) –PS (RPA, LPA, lobar aa/vv not enlarged) –PDA (lungs overcirculated – lobar aa and vv enlarged, but not tortuous) –Pulmonary hypertension (RPA, LPA lobar aa enlarged) MPA enlargement –Not easily seen on lateral in dogs –not readily seen in cats This case – echo diagnosis –PS – need spectral Doppler to measure gradient across –RV thickening

85 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal LPA, RPA, lobar aa enlarged and tortuous Pulmonary Hypertension 1.HW Disease 2.Primary PH 3.Chronic Respiratory Disease

86 Case #9 – 6 month old poodle with murmur found on physical exam Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

87 Case #9 – 6 month old poodle with murmur found on physical exam Dx – PDA with no CHF Measuring pulmonary lobar arteries 1.Caudal lobar aa should be same width as a rib –Seen best on the VD/DV view 2.cranial lobar aa 0.75x 3 rd or 4 th rib –Seen best on the lateral view

88 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #9 – 6 month old poodle with murmur found on physical exam Dx – PDA with no CHF Measuring pulmonary lobar arteries 1.Caudal lobar aa should be same width as a rib –Seen best on the VD/DV view 2.cranial lobar aa 0.75x 3 rd or 4 th rib –Seen best on the lateral view

89 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #10 – 5 yr old DSH cat Tachypnea

90 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #10 – 5 yr old DSH cat tachypnea Ascites in the cranial abdomen Perihilar edema HUGE Caudal Vena Cava Enlarged pulmonary lobar veins Elevated trachea (LV enlargement) Enlarged Lauricle on VD Marked generalized cardiomegaly (VHS 10.5)

91 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #10 – 5 yr old DSH cat Tachypnea Enlarged Caudal vena cava -size varies with respiratory cycle -only severe enlargement is reliably detected -maximum width < length T5 or T6 Causes Right heart failure Mass obstructing Caudal Vena Cava –Thrombus, tumor

92 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #10 – 5 yr old DSH cat Tachypnea

93 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #11 – 2 yr old DSH cat Tachypnea

94 Thoracic Rads - Abnormal Case #11 – 2 yr old DSH cat Tachypnea VHS 8.75 Left Heart Failure –Patchy pulmonary edema (caudal) –Enlarged pulmonary lobar vv Right Heart failure –Pleural effusion Echo diagnosis – hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

95 Case #12 – 6 yr old Westie ADR Thoracic Rads - Abnormal

96 Case #12 – 6 yr old Westie ADR VHS 8.5 (low normal) Clinical diagnosis – severe dehydration Causes of microcardia –Severe dehydration –Addison’s Disease –Pneumothorax (heart lifted off the sternum) Should also see collapsed lung lobes

97 Thoracic Rads - Review Left Heart Failure Pulmonary edema (alveolar if severe) Pleural effusion in cats Pulmonary lobar veins much larger than arteries Enlarged LA + compression of L bronchus –Not a sign of heart failure per se –But LHF is rarely present without LA enlargement + Enlarged LV –Tracheal elevation –Cardiomegaly (increased VHS)

98 Thoracic Rads - Review Right Heart Failure Pleural effusion –Can obscure evaluation of the heart, lungs and great vessels Enlarged caudal vena cava Ascites –Modified transudate Often concurrent with left heart failure –Generalized cardiomegaly (increased VHS) RHF alone: –HWDz, Chaga's Disease, pericardial disease

99 Thoracic Rads - Review Chronic Bronchitis Increased or mineralized airway pattern Peribronchiolar infiltrates –May progress to bronchopneumonia –Interstitial pattern –Alveolar pattern (air bronchograms) if severe Signs of pulmonary hypertension –Enlarged pulmonary artery and lobar aa No signs of heart failure

100 Thoracic Rads - Review Patent Ductus Arteriosus -left to right shunt (aorta to MPA) -volume expansion + Enlarged pulmonary artery + Pulmonary overcirculation –Enlarged pulmonary lobar aa & vv Enlarged descending aorta Enlarged LV –Tracheal elevation –Increased VHS Enlarged LA –+ compression left bronchus + pulmonary edema

101 Thoracic Rads - Review Sub-Aortic Stenosis -pressure overload left side + Enlarged LV on rads –Increased VHS –Not as marked as volume overload Enlarged ascending aorta Left Heart Failure due to aortic insufficiency is rare Death more often due to arrhythmia

102 Thoracic Rads - Review Pulmonic Stenosis -pressure overload right side + Enlarged RV on rads –Not as marked as volume overload Enlarged MPA Right Heart Failure due to pulmonic insufficiency is rare Death more often due to arrhythmia

103 Thoracic Rads - Review Ventricular Septal Defect -left to right shunt (LV to RV) -volume expansion + RV enlargement + Pulmonary overcirculation –Enlarged pulmonary lobar aa & vv Enlarged LV –Tracheal elevation –Increased VHS Enlarged LA –+ compression left bronchus + pulmonary edema

104 Thoracic Rads - Review Atrial Septal Defect -left to right shunt (LA to RA) -lower pressure differential, so no significant volume expansion + RV enlargement + RA enlargement –Enlarged pulmonary lobar aa & vv Heart failure is rare (handout)handout


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