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Inflammation & Repair. Inflammation Acute Inflammation Cardinal signs –Red (rubor) –Swelling (tumor) –Warm (calor) –Tender (dolor) –Loss of function.

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Presentation on theme: "Inflammation & Repair. Inflammation Acute Inflammation Cardinal signs –Red (rubor) –Swelling (tumor) –Warm (calor) –Tender (dolor) –Loss of function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inflammation & Repair

2 Inflammation

3 Acute Inflammation Cardinal signs –Red (rubor) –Swelling (tumor) –Warm (calor) –Tender (dolor) –Loss of function (functio laesa)


5 Neutrophils Polymorphonuclear Lekocytes (PMN) Margination –Pavementing Adhesion –Complementary adhesion molecules on leukocytes and endothelial cells

6 Leukocyte-Endothelial Adhesion

7 Neutrophils Rolling

8 Emigration & Chemotaxis Mediators Bacterial products - LPS Complement derivatives - C5a Arachidonic acid derivatives –leukotriene B4 Cytokines - IL-8

9 Emigration & Chemotaxis Mediators Neutrophil Chemotaxis in vitro

10 Emigration & Chemotaxis Defects WBC defects - –Chediak-Higashi Syndrome –Diabetes mellitus Chemotactic factor defects –C5 or immunoglobulin deficiency Serum chemotaxis inhibitors –C5 inactivators -  in cirrhosis, sarcoidosis, and other diseases WBC locomotion inhibitors –Chloroquine, cancer and other chronic diseases

11 Phagocytosis & Degranulation Phagocytosis requires three distinct steps –Recognition –Attachment –Engulfment

12 Recognition & Attachment Opsoninzation Opsonins –Fc fragment of IgG –C3b –Mannose-binding protein (produced in the liver) Covers the surface of microorganisms and is recognized by neutrophils and macrophages

13 Phagocytosis & Degranulation


15 Activation and Destruction (killing) Oxygen dependent killing –myeloperoxidase requires hydrogen peroxide and halide (e.g., Cl - ) to produce HOCl –Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion without myeloperoxidase will generate OH free radical

16 Chemical Mediators of Inflammation

17 Chemical Mediators of Inflammation Preformed & Newly Synthesized

18 Arachidonic Acid System

19 Noninflammatory and Inflammatory Conditions Transudate - fluid with low protein content and a specific gravity <1.012 Exudate - inflammatory extracellular fluid composed of plasma proteins, principally albumin, cells and cellular debris, and a specific gravity >1.020

20 Transudate - Pulmonary Edema

21 Pitting Edema

22 Laryngeal Edema

23 Pulmonary Edema

24 Ascites


26 Noninflammatory and Inflammatory Conditions Anasarca - edema which is severe and generalized Abscess - localized collections of pus caused by suppuration buried in a tissue, organ, or confined space Cellulitis - spreading suppurations in subcutaneous tissue

27 Types of Exudates Serous - blister in thermal burn Fibrinous - uremic pericarditis, viral/chemical pneumonitis, idiopathic Purulent - meningococcal meningitis Eosinophilic - IgE mediated - asthma & parasitic infection Hemorrhagic - rickettsial Pseudomembranous - diptheria & pseudomembranous enterocolitis

28 Serous Exudate - Blister


30 Fibrinous Exudate - Pericarditis

31 Fibrinous Pericarditis

32 Acute Inflammation - Purulent




36 Pseudomembranous Exudate Diphtheria


38 Diphtheria

39 Outcomes of Acute Inflammation


41 The End Acute Inflammation

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