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Care of Patients with Cardiac Problems

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1 Care of Patients with Cardiac Problems
Chapter 37 Care of Patients with Cardiac Problems

2 Heart Failure Also called pump failure, general term for the inability of the heart to work effectively as a pump Left-sided heart failure Right-sided heart failure High-output failure

3 Left-Sided Heart Failure
Typical causes—hypertensive, coronary artery, valvular disease Formerly known as congestive heart failure Two types of left-sided heart failure: Systolic heart failure Diastolic heart failure

4 Right-Sided Heart Failure
Typical causes—left ventricular failure, right ventricular MI, pulmonary hypertension Right ventricle not able to empty completely Increased volume and pressure in the venous system and peripheral edema

5 High-Output Failure Cardiac output remains normal or above normal
Caused by increased metabolic needs of hyperkinetic conditions such as: Septicemia Anemia Hyperthyroidism

6 Compensatory Mechanisms
Sympathetic nervous system stimulation Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation Other chemical responses: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) Myocardial hypertrophy

7 Etiology Heart failure is caused by systemic hypertension in 75% of cases. About one third of patients experiencing myocardial infarction also develop heart failure. Structural heart changes, such as valvular dysfunction, cause pressure or volume overload on the heart.

8 Left-Sided Heart Failure
Manifestations include: Weakness Fatigue Dizziness Confusion Pulmonary congestion Breathlessness

9 Left-Sided Heart Failure (Cont’d)
Oliguria Death

10 Right-Sided Heart Failure
Manifestations include: Distended neck veins, increased abdominal girth Hepatomegaly (liver engorgement) Hepatojugular reflux Ascites Dependent edema Weight—the most reliable indicator of fluid gain or loss

11 Assessments Psychosocial assessment Laboratory assessment
Imaging assessment Electrocardiography Pulmonary artery catheters

12 Impaired Gas Exchange Interventions include: Ventilation assistance
Position Oxygen

13 Decreased Cardiac Output
Interventions include: Improved and increased cardiac pump effectiveness Hemodynamic regulation Drugs that reduce afterload—ACE inhibitors, ARB, human B-type natriuretic peptides

14 Interventions That Reduce Preload
Nutrition therapy Drug therapy—diuretics and venous vasodilators Drugs that enhance contractility—digoxin, other inotropic drugs, beta-adrenergic blockers

15 Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure

16 Other Nonsurgical Options
Continuous positive airway pressure Cardiac resynchronization therapy Gene therapy

17 Surgical Management Heart transplantation Ventricular assist devices
Other surgical therapies: Partial left ventriculectomy Endoventricular circular patch Acorn cardiac support device Myosplint

18 Heart Transplantation

19 Activity Intolerance Interventions include: Balance activity and rest.
Nap to restore energy. Recognize energy limitations. Conserve energy. Adapt lifestyle to energy level. Report adequate endurance for activity.

20 Potential for Pulmonary Edema
Interventions include: Assess for early signs, such as crackles in the lung bases, dyspnea at rest, disorientation, and confusion. High-Fowler’s Oxygen therapy Nitroglycerine, rapid-acting diuretics, IV morphine sulfate Continual assessment

21 Community-Based Care Home care management Health teaching
Health care resources

22 Heart Valves

23 Valvular Heart Disease
Mitral stenosis Mitral regurgitation (insufficiency) Mitral valve prolapse Aortic stenosis Aortic regurgitation (insufficiency)

24 Assessment Patient may become suddenly ill or slowly develop symptoms over many years. Question patient about attacks of rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis and about possibility of IV drug abuse. Obtain chest x-ray, echocardiogram, and exercise tolerance test.

25 Common Nursing Diagnoses
Decreased Cardiac Output related to altered stroke volume Impaired Gas Exchange related to ventilation perfusion imbalance Activity Intolerance related to inability of the heart to meet metabolic demands during activity Acute Pain related to physiologic injury agent (hypoxia)

26 Nonsurgical Management
Nonsurgical management focuses on drug therapy and rest Drug therapy, including diuretics, beta blockers, digoxin, oxygen, and sometimes nitrates Prophylactic antibiotic Management of atrial fibrillation Anticoagulant Rest with limited activity

27 Surgical Management Reparative procedures Balloon valvuloplasty
Direct, or open, commissurotomy Mitral valve annuloplasty Replacement procedures

28 Heart Valves

29 Community-Based Care Home care management Health teaching
Health care resources

30 Infective Endocarditis
Microbial infection involving the endocardium Occurs primarily in patients who abuse IV drugs, have had valve replacements, have experienced systemic infections, or have structural cardiac defects Possible ports of entry—oral cavity, skin rash, lesion, abscess, infections, surgery, or invasive procedures including IV line placement

31 Manifestations Murmur Heart failure Arterial embolization
Splenic infarction Neurologic changes Petechiae (pinpoint red spots) Splinter hemorrhages

32 Diagnostic Assessment
Blood culture Echocardiography The most reliable criteria for diagnosing endocarditis include positive blood cultures, a new regurgitant murmur, and evidence of endocardial involvement by echocardiography

33 Interventions Antimicrobials.
Anticoagulants are of no value in preventing embolization from vegetations. Patient’s activities are balanced with adequate rest.

34 Surgical Management Removing the infected valve
Repairing or removing congenital shunts Repairing injured valves and chordae tendineae Draining abscesses in the heart or elsewhere

35 Pericarditis Inflammation or alteration of the pericardium, the membranous sac that encloses the heart Dressler’s syndrome Post-pericardiotomy syndrome Chronic constrictive pericarditis

36 Pericarditis (Cont’d)

37 Assessment Substernal precordial pain radiating to left side of the neck, shoulder, or back Grating, oppressive pain, aggravated by breathing, coughing, swallowing Pain worsened by the supine position; relieved when the patient sits up and leans forward Pericardial friction rub

38 Interventions Pain management Pericardiectomy

39 Pericardial Effusion Cardiac tamponade: JVD Paradoxical pulse
Decreased CO Muffled heart sounds Circulatory collapse

40 Pericardial Tamponade
Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2002 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

41 Acute Cardiac Tamponade: Emergency Care
Cardiac tamponade—an extreme emergency Increased fluid volume Hemodynamic monitoring Pericardiocentesis Pericardial window Pericardiectomy

42 Pericardiocentesis

43 Rheumatic Carditis Sensitivity response that develops after an upper respiratory tract infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci Inflammation in all layers of the heart Formation of Aschoff bodies, small nodules in the myocardium that are replaced by scar tissue Impaired contractile function of the myocardium, thickening of the pericardium, and valvular damage

44 Clinical Manifestations
Tachycardia Cardiomegaly New or changed murmur Pericardial friction rub Precordial pain Changes in electrocardiogram Indications of heart failure Existing streptococcal infection

45 Cardiomyopathy Subacute or chronic disease of cardiac muscle
Dilated cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

46 Interventions Drug therapy Implantable cardiac defibrillators
Toxin exposure avoidance Alcohol avoidance Ventriculomyomectomy Percutaneous alcohol septal ablation Heart transplantation

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