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Important Teaching Points for Medical Students from:

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Presentation on theme: "Important Teaching Points for Medical Students from:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Important Teaching Points for Medical Students from:

2 Background on Preeclampsia

3 Why is preeclampsia important?  It can lead to serious maternal and neonatal morbidity  Maternal: seizure, stroke, DIC, bleeding, liver hematoma  Neonatal: growth restriction, distress/hypoxia in labor, preterm birth  It increases a woman’s risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease later in life

4 Important points about preeclampsia  We don’t know exactly why it happens  It occurs only in association with pregnancy  ALMOST ALWAYS from 20 wks gestation until delivery  RARELY you can see preeclampsia ≤6wks postpartum or before 20wks gestation  It is progressive (worsens as pregnancy progresses)  It is multisystemic

5 What causes preeclampsia?  Multifactorial  We are not 100% certain of the pathogenesis Gabbe: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 6 th ed, Elsevier 2012.

6 Classification of Hypertension in Pregnancy

7 Classification of hypertension in pregnancy 1. Preeclampsia-eclampsia 1. Hypertension in association with thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function, the new development of renal insufficiency, pulmonary edema, or new-onset cerebral or visual disturbances 2. Gestational hypertension 1. Blood pressure elevation after 20 weeks of gestation in the absence of proteinuria or the aforementioned systemic findings 3. Chronic hypertension 1. Hypertension that predates pregnancy 4. Superimposed preeclampsia 1. Chronic hypertension in association with preeclampsia

8 Diagnosis of Preeclampsia

9 Diagnosis of preeclampsia  Blood pressure criteria:  SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg  Persistent for 4 hours (repeat blood pressure after at least 4 hours)  Plus one or both of the following:  Proteinuria  ≥300mg protein or more in 24 hour urine collection OR  Urine protein:creatinine ratio of ≥0.3 mg/dL OR  1+ protein on urine dipstick (not preferred method)  Systemic findings  Thrombocytopenia  Renal insufficiency  Impaired liver function  Pulmonary edema  Cerebral or visual findings

10 Diagnosis of preeclampsia

11  Notice that proteinuria is no longer a necessary part of the diagnosis  Waiting to diagnose proteinuria can delay necessary treatment  The amount of proteinuria does not predict maternal or fetal outcome

12 Diagnosis of preeclampsia with severe features

13  HELLP syndrome is a form of “preeclampsia with severe features” (previously known as severe preeclampsia)

14 Prediction and prevention

15 Prediction of preeclampsia  Screening beyond obtaining an appropriate medical history to evaluate for risk factors is NOT recommended

16 Risk factors for preeclampsia Gabbe: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 6 th ed, Elsevier 2012

17 Prevention of preeclampsia  For women with:  A medical history of early onset preeclampsia and preterm delivery at less than 34 0/7 weeks gestation, or  Preeclampsia in more than one prior pregnancy  Give them low dose aspirin (81mg) daily beginning in the late first trimester  Dietary modifications do not work  Bedrest does not work

18 Management: Gestational Hypertension

19 Management of gestational hypertension  Management is expectant  Daily fetal kick counts  Twice weekly blood pressure measurements  Check for proteinuria at every office visit (urine dipstick)  Oral anti-hypertensives are not needed, unless SBP >160 mmHb and DBP >110 mmHg persistently  If they develop preeclampsia, the management changes

20 Management: Preeclampsia

21 Management of preeclampsia  For preeclampsia WITHOUT severe features (formerly known as mild preeclampsia), manage patients expectantly until 37 0/7 weeks:  Daily fetal kick counts  Twice weekly blood pressure measurement  Weekly labs (platelets, AST, ALT)  Do not give antihypertensive medications as long as pressures remain SBP <160 mmHb and DBP <110 mmHg  Monitor fetal growth with monthly ultrasounds  If fetal growth restriction is found, perform umbilical artery Dopplers  Delivery is recommended at 37 0/7 weeks  When they are being delivered, they probably don’t need magnesium sulfate for seizure prevention  If they develop severe features, the management changes

22 Management of Preeclampsia with Severe Features

23 Management of preeclampsia with severe features  From 24 0/7 wks- 34 0/7 wks you can manage them expectantly:  At a tertiary hospital (transfer if necessary)  Give BTMZ for fetal lung maturity  Treat with antihypertensive medications for sustained SBP ≥160 or DBP ≥110  A change in the amount of proteinuria should not affect management or dictate delivery

24 Management of preeclampsia with severe features  From 24 0/7-34 0/7 weeks (continued): If a patient is sick but stable, you can administer BTMZ and wait ≥48 hours  However, if a patient is unstable or has any of the following, give BTMZ and deliver them immediately:  Severe HTN not controlled by IV medications  Eclampsia  Pulmonary edema  Placental abruption  DIC  Nonreassuring fetal status  Fetal demise

25 Management of preeclampsia with severe features  Before 24 0/7 weeks (ie before viability), deliver them immediately  The baby will likely not survive

26 Management of preeclampsia with severe features  Delivery is recommended at 34 0/7 weeks  Always give magnesium sulfate for seizure prophylaxis

27 Chronic hypertension (cHTN)  Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia is managed the same as preeclampsia  If severe features develop, it is managed the same as preeclampsia with severe features

28 Management summary Gestational hypertension PreeclampsiaPreeclampsia with severe features Chronic hypertension DeliveryAt the onset of labor 37 0/7 wks34 0/7wks38 0/7wks Magnesium sulfate NoMaybeYesNo BTMZOnly if delivery <34wks for another indication YesOnly if delivery <34wks for another indication Inpatient monitoring at tertiary hospital No YesNo PO anti- hypertensives Only if >160/110 persistently NoOnly if >160/110 persistently

29 Management: simplified High blood pressure in pregnancy Onset <20wks gestation Chronic hypertension Delivery at 38 0/7 wks Pt develops superimposed preeclampsia Delivery at 37 0/7wks Pt develops superimposed preeclampsia with severe features Stable patient Inpatient monitoring. Delivery at 34 0/7wks. Unstable patient Delivery ASAP after BTMZ Onset >20wks gestation Gestational hypertension Deliver when pt is in labor Preeclampsia Deliver at 37 0/7wks Preeclampsia with severe features Stable patient Inpatient monitoring. Delivery at 34 0/7wks Unstable patient Delivery ASAP after BTMZ

30 Delivery recommendations

31  Induction of labor is acceptable as long as maternal and fetal conditions are stable  Epidural and spinal anesthesia are acceptable as long as maternal and fetal conditions are stable  Magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis is recommended for:  Eclampsia  Preeclampsia with severe features  It can be considered in non-severe preeclampsia

32 Postpartum

33 Postpartum recommendations  Women with eclampsia and preeclampsia with severe features should get magnesium sulfate seizure prophylaxis for 24 hours postpartum  Blood pressures should be monitored postpartum inpatient for at least 72 hours  If postpartum blood pressures are persistently ≥160/≥110, oral antihypertensives should be started  Any woman who presents within 6 weeks postpartum with new-onset hypertension with severe features, consider administering magnesium sulfate

34 Later in life

35  For women with a history of:  Preeclampsia who gave birth at less than 37 0/7 weeks  Recurrent preeclampsia  They should have a yearly assessment of:  Blood pressure  Lipids  Fasting blood glucose  BMI

36 Source  Roberts, JR et al. “Executive Summary.” Hypertension in Pregnancy. The ACOG Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Pages 1-11.


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