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Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 20 Optimizing Abilities and Capacities: Range of Motion, Strength, and Endurance
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Learning Objectives State the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms that underlie therapeutic exercise and occupation. Apply the methods for decreasing edema, minimizing contracture, and mobilization to prevent limitation of range of motion. Apply biomechanical and physiological principles of the biomechanical approach to the selection of occupations as a means for treating range of motion, strength, and/or endurance problems as needed for occupational performance. Design treatment goals and therapy for clients who have problems with range of motion, strength, and/or endurance to enhance occupational performance.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Musculoskeletal System: Biomechanical Aspects Kinematic analysis –Describes the amount and direction of movement, speed, and acceleration of body segments and joint angles Kinetics –Addresses the forces that cause motion or maintain stability Torque –Tendency of a force to produce rotation about an axis Lever systems –Effort is the force that causes movement and resistance is the force that tends to keep the object moving. First-class lever Second-class lever Third-class lever
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Musculoskeletal System: Physiological Aspects Strength –Muscle hypertrophy Activity stresses the muscle’s ability to produce tension and force –Result of neural change Development of more effective neural patterns and neuromotor connections
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Biomechanical Approach to Treatment: Maintaining or Preventing Limitation in Range of Motion An individual’s actual ROM at any joint is determined by the structures surrounding the segments that are moving. Functional ROM is the range necessary to perform daily activities. Occupational therapists are concerned with providing treatment that helps clients maintain functional motion or to help patients gain motion when there are limitations that interfere with occupation.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Factors That Limit Range of Motion Systemic, neurological, or muscular diseases impair muscle performance. Joint diseases such as arthritis that create pain and inflammation decrease motion, and surgical or traumatic insults that produce edema and scarring. Simple inactivity or immobilization affects ROM. Changes may occur in the muscles, ligaments, joint capsules, tendons, or joints. This leads to pain, inflammation, and edema.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods: Decreasing Edema Used to prevent ROM limitations secondary to edema Techniques include the following: –Elevation –Cryotherapy –Compression –Massage –Electrical current
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods: Minimizing Contractures Occupational therapists may use therapeutic positioning and splinting. Therapeutic positioning is designed to help –With edema resolution when limbs are elevated –Preserve function by holding limbs at a proper muscle length –Patients avoid positions that result in tissue shortening or contracture Splinting used to hold joints in a position with optimum tissue length
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods: Movement Through Full Range of Motion Methods for ranging –Teaching the patient to move the joints that are injured, immobilized, or edematous –Passively move the joints if the patient is unable to actively move the joint themselves Attention must be given to plane of motion, structures involved with the movement of the joint, and joint biomechanics. AROM or AAROM is preferred to PROM for reduction of edema because the contraction of the muscles helps pump the fluid out of the extremity. AROM and PROM have no set protocol of frequency. Occupational therapists often structure activities to promote AROM and PROM to prevent loss of motion.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Increasing Range of Motion If limitations in ROM impair a patient’s ability to function independently in occupations or are likely to lead to deformity, treatment to increase ROM is indicated. Problems that can be changed –Contractures of soft tissue Skin Muscles Tendons Ligaments Problems that cannot be changed –Ankylosis or arthrodesis –Long-standing contractures –Severe joint destruction
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Increasing Range of Motion: Stretching Stretch is a process by which the target tissue is lengthened by an external force, usually through manual therapy or through the use of splinting, casting, or external equipment. Change is only created when tissue is stretched repeatedly or sustained over time. Factors that determine the effectiveness of stretching are the duration, the intensity, the speed, and the frequency of the stretch being applied. Gentle, controlled stretching that achieves small increments of gain over time is thought to be more effective than vigorous stretching aimed at large, rapid gains.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods for ROM: Active Stretching The use of occupation for stretching is empirically based on the idea that a person involved in an interesting and purposeful activity will gain greater range. Because occupations can be performed using a number of muscle patterns, the therapist must determine how the patient completed the activity prior to injury.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods for ROM: Active Stretching—(cont.) Occupations used as a means to increase ROM must provide a gentle active stretch by use of slow, repetitive isotonic contractions of the muscle opposite the contracture or by use of a prolonged passive stretched position of the contracted tissue. Exercises that increase the range of shortened tissue are the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques called contract relax and agonist contraction.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods for ROM: Passive Stretching Preparatory method for increasing ROM so patients are able to engage in purposeful activity Techniques –Manual stretch –Use of orthotic devices Splints Casts –Home program on specific joint stretches –Pilates, yoga, or the ROM dance –These tasks can be integrated into a patient’s daily occupations.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Biomechanical Approach to Treatment: Strengthening If limitations in a patient’s strength prevent participation in occupations or may lead to a deformity, treatment aimed at increasing strength is warranted. If weakness prohibits patients from moving the limb or maintaining a functional position, their lack of regular active range of motion may lead to contracture. Occupation or exercise parameters that may be manipulated to increase strength include the following: –Type of contraction and speed –Muscles involved –Intensity of task
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods for Strengthening: Occupations and Exercise Therapists may find that various occupations provide sufficient opportunities for muscle strengthening and are more effective at maintaining the patient’s interest and motivation than exercise alone. Exercise may be used as a warm-up to occupation, or occupation may be introduced to enhance carryover of the strength gained by exercise.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Grading Muscle Strength Parameters When prescribing a strengthening program, therapists can manipulate the exercise or occupational parameters. Amount of resistance imposed on the contracting muscle or muscle groups during each repetition is increased. –40%–60% of one-repetition maximum (1 RM) Training volume: Changing the number of repetitions of an activity, changing the number of sets required of that one activity, or changing the number of activities done during a treatment session. Rest period between activity should be 3–4 minutes for high loads or repetitions; rest period of 1–2 minutes for low intensity or low repetition activity. Patients starting a strengthening program should exercise 2–3 days a week, which can then increase to 3–5 days a week as the strength progresses.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Biomechanical Approach to Treatment: Increasing Endurance Factors that influence muscle endurance –With activities that call for maximum muscle contraction, such as lifting heavy loads, more motor units must contract simultaneously without the opportunity to recover, resulting in quicker fatigue.
Copyright © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Intervention Methods: Increasing Endurance Provide patients with interest- sustaining occupations that can be graded along the dimension of time or repetition. Work with patients to schedule their everyday routines so that they gradually increase the amount of time they engage in occupations throughout the day and/or gradually increase the duration of engagement in one particular occupation.
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