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Skin Integrity and Wound Care Teresa V. Hurley, MSN, RN.

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Presentation on theme: "Skin Integrity and Wound Care Teresa V. Hurley, MSN, RN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skin Integrity and Wound Care Teresa V. Hurley, MSN, RN

2 Skin Integrity Largest organ in the body Functions –First line of defense against microorganisms –Regulation of body temperature –Transmits sensations of pain, temperature, touch and pressure --Vitamin D production and absorption --secretes sebum

3 Wounds What are wounds ? –Break in skin or mucous membranes

4 Wound Classification Superficial Deep (blood vessels, nerves, muscle, tendons, ligaments, bones) Open Wound –Superficial or deep break in skin (abrasion, puncture, laceration)

5 Wound Classification Closed: blunt force; twisting, turning, straining, bone fracture, visceral organ tear Acute: trauma sharp object or blow –Surgical incision, gun shot, venipuncture Chronic: pressure ulcers Causality –Intentional: surgical incision –Unintentional: traumatic Knife Burn

6 Pressure Wounds Damage to tissues due to pressure Factors –Immobility –Elderly –Skin moisture –Malnutrition (protein) –Shearing Forces –Friction –Risk Factors as outlined on Braden Scale

7 Pressure Ulcer Stages Stage I: No Skin Break –Skin temperature, consistency (firm), sensation (pain or itching) –Persistent redness in light skin tones –Persistent red, blue or purple hue in darker skin tones

8 Pressure Ulcer Stages Stage II: Superficial –Partial-thickness skin loss (epidermis and/or dermis –Abrasion, blister or shallow crater Stage III –Full-thickness skin loss (subcutaneous damage or necrosis and may extend down to but not through fascia –Deep crater

9 Pressure Ulcer Stages Stage IV: full thickness skin loss and destruction, necrosis of the tissue, damage to muscle, bone, tendons and joint capsules and sinus tract Types of Dressings Transparent film (Tegraderm, Bioclusive) Hydrocolloid (Duoderm, Comfeel) Hydrogel Gauze Roll (Kerlix) –Provide moist environment –Loosen slough and necrotic tissue –Wick drainage from wound

10 Pressure Ulcer Assessment Tissue Type –Granulation Tissue: red and moist –Slough: yellow stringy tissue attached to wound bed; removal essential for healing –Eschar: necrotic tissue which is brown or black appearance must be debrided

11 Pressure Ulcer Assessment Wound Dimensions (L, W, D) Wound Deterioration –Skin surrounding ulcer Redness, warmth, edema Exudate –Amount, color, consistency, odor

12 Wound Healing Primary Intention –skin edges are approximated (closed) as in a surgical wound –Inflammation subsides within 24 hours (redness, warmth, edema) –Resurfaces within 4 to 7 days Secondary Intention: tissue loss –Burn, pressure ulcer, severe lasceration –Wound left open –Scar tissue forms

13 Wound Healing Inflammatory Response –Serum and RBC’s form fibrin network –Increases blood flow with scab forming in 3 to 5 days Proliferative Phase: 3-24 days –Granulation tissue fills wound –Resurfacing by epithelialization Remodeling: more than 1 year –collagen scar reorganizes and increases in strength –Fewer melanocytes (pigment), lighter color

14 Some Factors Influencing Wound Healing Age Nutrition: protein and Vitamin C intake Obesity decreased blood flow and increased risk for infection Tissue contamination: pathogens compete with cells for oxygen and nutrition Hemorrhage Infection: purulent discharge Dehiscence: skin and tissue separate Evisceration: protrusion of visceral organs Fistula: abnormal passage through two organs or to outside of body

15 Therapeutic Modalities Contingent on location, size, wound type, exudate, infection, dressed or undressed Assessment –Inspect and palpate surrounding area –Wound edge approximation (healing ridge noted) –Presence and characteristics of drainage Serous Sanguineous Serosanguineous Purulent Consistency, odor and amount

16 Wound Assessment Wound Closure –Staples –Sutures –Steri-strips Drains –Penrose –Hemovac or Jackson Pratt exert low pressure

17 Some Dressing Types and Assistive Devices Dry Dressings Wet-to-Dry Dressings Packing Wound Vacuum Assisted Closure: apply local negative pressure to draw wound edges together; healing acclerated with the formation of granulation, collagen etc. to close wound or prepare for skin grafting Electrical Stimulation Abdominal Binders Montgomery Straps

18 Heat and Cold Therapies Heat –Vasodilation Increases blood flow Nutrient delivery Removal of waste Decreases venous congestion –Blood Viscosity Decreased leuokocytes antibiotics

19 Heat and Cold Applications Heat –Muscle relaxation with decrease in pain from spasm and stiffness –Tissue Metabolism increased with increased warmth and blood flow –Increased capillary permeability promotes nutrient delivery and waste removal

20 Cold Applications Vasoconstriction –Reduce blood flow preventing edema formation and decreases inflammation –Local anesthesia –Cell metabolism decreased with o2 demands decreased –Increased blood viscosity promotes coagulation –Pain relief with decrease in muscle tension –Direct Trauma; superficial lacerations, arthritis

21 Complications Heat application leads to reflex vasoconstriction within 1 hour –Complications Epithelial cells damaged Redness, tenderness, blistering

22 Complications Cold –Reflex vasodilation Tissue ischemia Skin redness Bluish purple mottling Numbness Burning pain Tissues may freeze

23 Modalities MD order: body site, type, frequency and duration of application Moist or dry Warm/Cold Compresses Warm Soaks (relaxation, debride wounds) Sitz Baths (rectal or vaginal surgery, hemorrhoids, episiotomy) Aquathermia pads (muscle sprains, inflammation or edema) Commerical Hot and Cold Packs

24 Contraindications Heat –Site with active bleeding –Acute localized pain (appendicitis) leads to rupture –Cardiovascular (vasodilation to large areas leads to decrease blood supply to vital organs

25 Contraindications Cold –Site pre-existing edema prevents absorption of intersitial fluid –Neuropathy (unable to sense) –Shivering will intensify with acute elevations in temperature

26 Critical Thinking What other factors need to be assessed before application of heat and cold therapies? Circulatory? LOC? Sensory?


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